‘’PRO.RASHID QURESHI ‘’
(Faculty in the department of Engineering and Technology. in Bangladesh University )
VOL.04 Issue 07
Many researchers, engineers, and environmentalists are expressing deep concerns about changes within the overall climate of the world. Fossil fuels are being continuously accustomed to produce electricity. The burning of those fuels produces gases like CO2, methane, and nitrous oxides which cause warming. Deforestation is additionally resulting in warmer temperatures. The hazard of worldwide warming is continuously causing major damage to the Earth’s environment. Most the people are still unaware of world warming and don’t consider it to be a giant problem in years to return. What the general public doesn’t understand is that warming is currently happening and that we are already experiencing a number of its withering effects. It’s and can severely affect ecosystems and disturb the ecological balance. Thanks to the treacherous effects of world warming, some solutions must be devised. The paper introduces heating, elaborates its causes and hazards, and presents some solutions to unravel this hot stock. Above all, energy sources (solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass) must be seriously pursued. Finding and using renewable sources of energy is one every of the methods to combat the ever-increasing heating effectively.
Climate, fossil fuels, deforestation, warming, energy sources.
The continuous rise in temperature of the world is absolutely upsetting. The basis cause for this is often heating. Warming begins when sunlight reaches the world. The clouds, atmospheric particles, reflective ground surfaces, and surface of oceans then send about half-hour of sunlight back to the space, whilst the remaining is absorbed by oceans, air, and land. This consequently heats the surface of the world and atmosphere, making life feasible. Because the Earth warms up, this alternative energy is radiated by thermal radiation and infrared rays, propagating directly dead set space thereby cooling the planet. However, a number of the outgoing radiation is re-absorbed by greenhouse gas, water vapors, ozone, methane, and other gases within the atmosphere and is radiated back to the surface of Earth. These gases are commonly referred to as greenhouse gases thanks to their heat-trapping capacity. It must be noted that this re-absorption process is truly good because the Earth’s average surface temperature would be very cold if there was no existence of greenhouse gases. The dilemma began when the concentration of greenhouse gases within the atmosphere was artificially increased by humankind at an alarming rate for the past two centuries.
Earth enjoys these temperatures due to its atmosphere, which is that the thin layer of gases that cover and protect the world. However, 97 you look after climate scientists and researchers agree that humans have changed the Earth’s atmosphere in dramatic ways over the past two centuries, leading to warming. To know to warm, it’s first necessary to become accustomed to the atmospheric phenomenon. As Fig.1 depicts, the natural atmospheric phenomenon normally traps some portion of warmth in such a way that our planet is safe from reaching freezing temperatures while the human-enhanced atmospheric phenomenon ends up in warming. This is often because of the burning of fossil fuels which increase the number of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and oxides of nitrogen) present within the atmosphere . The trade of incoming and outgoing radiation that heats the planet is commonly remarked because of the atmospheric phenomenon because a greenhouse works similarly (Fig.2). Incoming ultraviolet light easily passes through the glass walls of a greenhouse and is absorbed by the plants and hard surfaces inside.
This effect lets tropical plants prosper inside a greenhouse, even during a chilly season .
A similar phenomenon takes place during a car that’s parked outside on a chilly sunny day. Incoming radiation warms the inside of the car but outgoing thermal radiation is trapped inside the closed windows of the cars. This entrapment basically warms up the car. This trapping occurs in such a way that the recent air doesn’t rise and doesn’t lose energy through convention . This phenomenon is depicted in Fig. 3.
A Hazard Many greenhouse gases are mainly emitted by human action. the primary and foremost on the list is greenhouse gas. Excessive burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil is that the major factor for producing this gas. Moreover, deforestation i.e. removal of trees for acquiring lands also causes an outsized amount of greenhouse gas within the atmosphere. Cement manufacture also contributes greenhouse emissions to the atmosphere when carbonate is heated generating lime and CO2. The second culprit gas is methane, commonly referred to as fossil fuel. It’s produced as a result of agricultural activities like livestock digestion, paddy rice farming, and also the use of manure. Methane is additionally produced thanks to improper management of waste. Nitrous oxides are generated mainly by fertilizers. Moreover, fluorinated gases like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are chiefly results of various industrial processes and refrigeration , . Fig.4 shows pictorially the distribution of greenhouse gases. These gases are playing their negative part in increasing the havoc of world warming. They’re continuously causing a rise in the earth’s temperature.
Causes of world
Warming the major reason behind heating is greenhouse gases. They include a greenhouse gas, methane, nitrous oxides, and in some cases chlorine and bromine-containing compounds. The build-up of those gases within the atmosphere changes the radioactive equilibrium within the atmosphere. Their overall effect is to warm the Earth’s surface and therefore the lower atmosphere because greenhouse gases absorb a number of the outgoing radiation of Earth and re-radiate it back towards the surface. the web warming from 1850 to the tip of the 20th century was appreciated nearly 2.5 W/m2 with CO2 contribution about an hour to the current figure, methane about 25 percent, with nitrous oxides and halocarbons providing the rest. In 1985, Joe Farman, of land Antarctic Survey, published writing showing the decrease in ozone levels over Antarctica during the first 1980s. Even more important was abrupt international action to curb the emissions of CFCs.The second major explanation for heating is that the depletion of the layer. This happens mainly thanks to the presence of chlorine-containing source gases. When UV is present, these gases dissociate releasing chlorine atoms which then catalyze ozone destruction. Aerosols present within the atmosphere also are causing warming by changing the climate in two alternative ways; the human contribution to the number of aerosols within the atmosphere is of varied forms. For example, dust may be a by-product of agriculture. Biomass burning generates a mix of organic droplets and soot particles. Many industrial processes produce a good diversity of aerosols looking at what’s being burned or generated within the manufacturing process. Moreover, exhaust emissions from various forms of transport produce an expensive mixture of pollutants that are either aerosols from the outset or are transformed by chemical reactions within the atmosphere to create aerosols . V. Global Warming: the consequences Predicting the results of world warming is one every of the foremost difficult tasks faced by climate researchers. This can be because natural processes that cause rain, snowfall, hailstorms, rise in sea levels are reliant on many diverse factors. Moreover, it’s very hard to predict the dimensions of emissions of greenhouse gases within the future years as this is often determined majorly through technological advancements and political decisions. Heating produces many negative effects a number of which are described here. Firstly, extra vapor which is present within the atmosphere falls again as rain which results in floods in various regions of the planet. When the weather turns warmer, the evaporation process from both land and sea rises. This results in drought within the regions where the increased evaporation process isn’t compensated by increased precipitation. In some areas of the globe, this can lead to failure and famine particularly in areas where the temperatures are already high.
The additional vapor content within the atmosphere will fall again as extra rain hence causing a flood. Towns and villages which are obsessed with the melting water from snowy mountains may suffer drought and scarcity of water systems. it’s because the glaciers everywhere the globe are shrinking at an awfully rapid rate and also the melting of ice appears to be faster than previously projected. , temperature anomalies are projected to extend within the coming years. Before the 20th century, true was well in restraint but at the start of the present century, truly began to worsen.
This was all because of a rise in warming majorly because new industries and powerhouses started operation and emitted harmful gases which cause the world to heat up. This data is predicated on the research meted out by different climate and environmental research agencies.
Effects on Living Beings Global warming can severely affect the health of living beings.
Excess heat can cause stress which can cause pressure and heart diseases. Crop failures and famines, which are a right away the consequence of the heating of the planet, can cause a decline in anatomy resistance to viruses and infections. Heating can also transfer various diseases to other regions as people will shift from regions of upper temperatures to regions of comparatively lower temperatures. Warmer oceans and other surface waters may cause severe cholera outbreaks and harmful infections in some varieties of seafood . Moreover, it’s an incontrovertible fact that warmer temperatures result in dehydration which could be a major reason behind kidney stones. A medical team from The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia examined the health proceedings of quite 60,000 Americans alongside weather records. They found that individuals were presumably to be hospitalized with kidney stones three days after a temperature rise. Since 1994, concretion incidence has risen from about one in 20 people to 1 in 11.
This trend is probably going to extend because the globe gets hotter. In keeping with Luis Ostrosky, M.D. of the Division of Infectious Diseases at The University of Texas Health Science Centre at Houston grad school and medical director for epidemiology at Memorial Hermann-Texas Medical Centre: “One infection that’s definitely making a weird pattern is valley fever”. In his words, “This may be a zymosis we want to see only in California, Arizona, American state and touch in Texas, mycosis infections are on the increase, probably due to warming climates and drought-causing dust storms.
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