IMPROVE YOUR LIFE USING ONLY SPREAD AND PREVENTION OF SOME COMMON VIRUS

DR.PRAMILA MANIKA

(PRO. IN DEPARTMENT OF ENVIOROMENTAL COMMUNITY HEALTH, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA )

VOL.04 Issue 07

PDF

ABSTRACT

Viruses are probably the foremost common reason behind communicable diseases acquired within indoor environments and have a considerable impact on human health, ranging from severe life-threatening illnesses to relatively mild and self–limiting or asymptomatic diseases. Particularly, viruses causing gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases spread rapidly within the community and cause considerable morbidity. Increasing numbers of people who have impaired immunity, for whom the implications of infection are far more serious, are now cared for in ’out of hospital settings. there’s growing evidence that person–to–person transmission via the hands and contaminated fomites plays a key role within the spread of viral infections and there is a necessity for a wider understanding of the potential for contaminated surfaces to act as unidentified vectors of pathogens within the transmission cycle. Intervention studies have shown that improved standards of education, personal hygiene (particularly handwashing), and targeted environmental hygiene have a considerable impact on the control and prevention of infectious organisms.

 

KEYWORD

Prevention, virus, life-threatening illnesses, communicable disease.

INTRODUCTION

Nearly one thousand different kinds of viruses are known to infect humans and it’s estimated that they account for about 60% of all human infections (Horsfall 1965). Although many of the respiratory and gastrointestinal infections caused by viruses are going to be asymptomatic or relatively mild and self–limiting (coughs and colds, etc.), they still represent an enormous economic burden. Increasing numbers of people who have reduced immunity to infection, for whom the implications of infection are much more serious, are now cared for the reception. Otherwise healthy members of the family with asthma or allergies even have increased susceptibility to infection. within the united kingdom, it’s estimated that one in six people within the community belongs to an ’at risk‘ group (Bloomfield 2001).

World Health Organisation estimates suggest that, by 2025, there will be over 800 million people over 65 years old within the globe, two–thirds of them in developing countries (Anon. 1998). Viruses are probably the foremost common explanation for communicable diseases acquired within indoor environments. Viruses that cause tonsillitis, colds, croup, bronchiolitis, influenza, pneumonia, and other tract infections are also spread in aerosolized droplets. Aerosols produced by coughing, sneezing, and talking are inhaled directly by a susceptible host or may settle onto surfaces.

                                                                                      Infants are especially in danger of such infections because they often place objects, like toys, into their mouths. Transfer of viruses to food during handling and preparation via hands and food contact surfaces could be a vital route of spread of viral gastroenteritis

THE BURDEN OF viral infection gastrointestinal infections

In developed countries, it’s estimated that S0–40% of infectious gastroenteritis cases are because of viruses (Thompson 1994). Other data indicate that NLVs and rotavirus are the foremost typical pathogens causing outbreaks of gastroenteritis in homes for the elderly (Djuretic et al. 1996; Ryan et al. 1997; Dedman et al. 1998). Over the number 199S–96, a UK study involving some 460 000 participants was administrated to gauge rates of IID within the community and presenting to general practice which has given valuable insights into the epidemiology of viral infections within the community (Wheeler et al. 1999). The study indicated that as many together in five people within the final UK population develop IID annually with an estimated 9•4 million cases occurring annually. it’s long been recognized that, since cases and outbreaks related to viral agents are often unreported, the impact of viral intestinal infections is additionally much greater than national surveillance suggests.

              Wheeler and associates estimated that for every one case of rotavirus and NLV reported to national surveillance a further S5 cases of rotavirus and 1562 cases of NLV occur within the community. UK surveillance covering 1995–96 showed NLV as a serious reason for epidemic gastroenteritis in community residential and nursing homes, accounting for 4S% of all reported general gastroenteritis outbreaks (Evans et al. 1998). the speed of reported NLV infection reaches a peak in children under 5 years and again within the elderly. Foodborne outbreaks can arise from contaminated raw food like shellfish and also through secondary contamination from food handlers carrying the virus. Rotavirus infections are highly seasonal, peaking within the winter months (Brandt et al. 1982; Ryan et al. 1996; Dedman et al. 1998). it has been suggested that low humidity and people spending longer indoors contribute to the spread of rotavirus infections (Anon. 1995).

Respiratory infections Infections caused by influenza viruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, and respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) are a significant health burden. Estimates suggest that adults suffer two to 5 colds p.a. and infants and preschool children have about four to eight colds each year (Sperber 1994). Although such infections are often thought to be trivial, taking into consideration lost days from work and faculty, hospital admissions, and mortality rates in infants and therefore the elderly, the health and economic costs are considerable. Although the cold is caused by several viruses, rhinoviruses and coronaviruses predominate. Rhinoviruses are answerable for outbreaks of communicable disease within the general community like schools, daycare centers, and hospitals (Denny et al. 1986; Krilov et al. 1986; Kellner et al. 1988).

                                                                                            Influenza affects all age groups, but it’s the elderly and persons with underlying health problems who are at particular risk from complications of influenza and are more likely to want hospitalization. syncytial virus infections occur everywhere the globe and outbreaks are common within the cold season in temperate climates and also the season in tropical climates. The respiratory syncytial virus may be a major explanation for respiratory disorder in young children, affecting about 90% of kids by the age of two years (Crowcroft et al. 1999; Simoes 1999). School-aged children often carry RSV to their homes and spread the infection to younger siblings. Attack rates within families are high, with about 40% of members of the family, including adults, becoming infected. In most family outbreaks although over 95% of infections are symptomatic they’re not usually severe (Berglund 1967; Hall et al. 1976a)

                                                       In adults RSV infection generally leads to a ’common cold‘ type illness although it can sometimes produce a ’flu–like‘ syndrome indistinguishable from influenza. Antibodies resulting from a babyhood RSV infection don’t prevent further RSV infections later in life. The respiratory syncytial virus is understood to cause a high incidence of pneumonia and death within the elderly. In England and Wales, it’s estimated that RSV causes 60–80% more deaths than influenza, causing about 2S 000 deaths each winter (Nicholson 1996). Gastrointestinal viruses Rotavirus. Rotavirus is shed in large numbers from an infected person, with feces often containing > 1012 particles per gram. Children and adults will be asymptomatic excretion of rotavirus (Ansari et al. 1991a) and rotavirus, In adults RSV infection generally leads to a ’common cold‘ type illness although it can sometimes produce a ’flu–like‘ syndrome indistinguishable from influenza. Antibodies resulting from a babyhood RSV infection don’t prevent further RSV infections later in life. The respiratory syncytial virus is understood to cause a high incidence of pneumonia and death within the elderly. In England and Wales, it’s estimated that RSV causes 60–80% more deaths than influenza, causing about 2S 000 deaths each winter (Nicholson 1996). Gastrointestinal viruses Rotavirus. Rotavirus is shed in large numbers from an infected person, with feces often containing > 1012 particles per gram. Children and adults will be asymptomatic excretion of rotavirus (Ansari et al. 1991a) and rotavirus excretion can persist for up to S4 d after diarrhea has stopped in symptomatic patients (Pickering et al. 1988). More recently, a hospital study showed that S0% of the immunocompetent children excreted rotavirus particles for quite 21 d and as long as 57 d after the onset of diarrhea (Richardson et al. 1998). Sattar et al. (199S) have shown that rhinoviruses can survive on environmental surfaces for several hours. Infectious viruses are recovered from naturally contaminated objects within the surroundings of persons with rhinovirus colds (Reed 1975). Clean hands can readily acquire the virus by touching or handling such objects (Ansari et al. 1991b). the maximum amount as 70% of infectious rhinovirus on contaminated hands has been shown to transfer to a recipient‘s fingers after contact of only 10 s (Gwaltney et al. 1978). After handling contaminated cup handles and other objects, over 50% of subjects developed an infection (Gwaltney and Hendley 1982). Hendley et al. (197S) and Reed (1975).

                                                                          All of the volunteers who licked rotavirus–contaminated plates became infected whereas, of these individuals touching the virus–contaminated plates with their fingers then their mouths, only about half became infected. Several studies in child daycare centers have shown that rotavirus will be widely disseminated when outbreaks occur. In one such center fecal contamination of hands. Respiratory viruses It is generally accepted that respiratory viruses, like those which cause communicable disease and flu, are spread from person to person by aerosol transmission thanks to sneezing and coughing. Nevertheless, there’s growing evidence that a big proportion of flu and particularly cold viruses are spread via hands and surfaces like handkerchiefs and tissues, tap and door handles, telephones,  Sattar et al. (199S) have shown that rhinoviruses can survive on environmental surfaces for several hours. Infectious viruses are recovered from naturally contaminated objects within the surroundings of persons with rhinovirus colds (Reed 1975). Clean hands can readily acquire the virus by touching or handling such objects (Ansari et al. 1991b). the maximum amount as 70% of infectious rhinovirus on contaminated hands has been shown to transfer to a recipient‘s fingers after contact of only 10 s (Gwaltney et al. 1978). After handling contaminated cup handles and other objects, over 50% of subjects developed an infection (Gwaltney and Hendley 1982). Hendley et al. (197S) and Reed (1975) have demonstrated that rhinoviruses can survive for several hours on the hands and self–inoculation by rubbing the nasal mucosa or conjunctivae via virus-contaminated fingers can result in infection. Influenza virus will be shed before the onset of symptoms and for up to 7 d after onset and individuals with influenza are often infectious before they develop symptoms and for up to every week afterward. Both influenza A and B virus has been shown to survive on hard surfaces like stainless-steel and plastic for 24–48 hands-on absorbent surfaces like cloth, paper, and tissues for up to 12 h (Bean et al. 1982). it had been shown that influenza an endemic may be transferred from contaminated surfaces to hands for up to 24 h after the surface was inoculated. Epidemiological evidence supports the laboratory data because an influenza outbreak during a rest home suggested that the virus was spread by staff, through hands contaminated directly with body fluids.

 

EVIDENCE THAT HYGIENE CAN PLAY a component IN PREVENTING TRANSMISSION OF VIRAL INFECTIONS

 Although studies about the survival characteristics of viruses represent a very important component in understanding the infection potential and also the preventive role of hygiene, much of our knowledge comes from reports of infection outbreaks where hygiene procedures are defective or from case-control studies. Fifteen such reports are examined during which viral contamination was directly implicated or that viral agents were likely to possess been the reason for the infections.

Although opportunities for cross-contamination and cross-infection may occur less frequently within the home it may be argued that, since the ratio of homes to daycare centres is incredibly large, the impact of those environments on the infection rates across a community might not be so dissimilar, although daycare centres bring more people together. None of the investigations cited relate specifically to the house but Fornasini et al. (1992) and Osterholm et al. (1992) report studies of disease transmission from daycare centres to the house where it’s transferred among members of the family. In a study disbursed during the cold and flu season at two daycare centres, fewer colds were reported within the test group of S–5–year–olds using proper and frequent handwashing techniques than within the control group. within the test centre, the proportion of colds remained fairly constant at 18•9% whilst in the control group the proportion of colds increased from 12•7% to 27•8% (Niffenegger 1997). Carter et al. (1980) demonstrated that families who used an iodine-based hand disinfectant, known to kill rhinoviruses, had lower rates of infection than families using an inactive handwash. within the intervention year, the infection rate among those attending the centres was significantly not up to within the previous S years, with an almost 50% decrease within the infection rate. Roberts et al. (2000a) administered a randomized controlled trial of the effect of infection control measures on the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection in childcare. The intervention measures were training of childcare staff about the transmission of infection, handwashing, and aseptic nose-wiping technique. the same study by these workers also examined the consequences of infection control measures on the frequency of diarrhoeal episodes in childcare employing a randomized controlled trial (Roberts et al. 2000b). They found that, for those centres during which children‘s compliance with handwashing was high, diarrhoeal episodes were reduced by 66%. In the US, a pestilence of aseptic meningitis because of echovirus S0 was reported amongst parents with children attending a childcare centre. it absolutely was found that more frequent handwashing among the teachers compared with the fogeys of young children was related to significantly lower rates of infection (Helfand et al. 1994). St. Sauver et al. (1998) studied hygienic practices and also the prevalence of respiratory disease in children attending daycare homes. Never or rarely washing hands by both children and carers was related to the next frequency of respiratory disease in both family and group daycare homes. sacs et al. (1991) reported a sevenfold reduction in the incidence of RSV during a hospital when patients and staff were educated about the importance of handwashing and infected babies were segregated. Before the intervention, 4•2% of youngsters under 2 years old developed nosocomial RSV, whilst after the intervention, only 0•6% developed an infection. Following the implementation of a hygiene intervention programme that included handwashing education, use of gloves, disposable nappy pads, and alcohol-based hand rinse the incidence of enteric illness was lowered

 

DEVELOPMENT OF EFFECTIVE HYGIENE POLICIES FOR PREVENTION OF VIRAL INFECTIONS

The data reviewed show how improved standards of education and integrated hygiene measures, including hand and environmental hygiene, could have a major impact in reducing infectious diseases within the community and residential environments. Traditionally, the general public has attended regard good hygiene as creating an environment free from germs. to plan a hygiene policy that has real public health benefits, it’s now accepted that a risk-based approach should even be adopted (Bloomfield and Scott 1997; Jones 1998; Scott 1999). A risk assessment approach to hygiene starts from the premise that homes and other settings always contain potentially harmful microbes (people, pets, food, etc.) which good hygiene isn’t about eradication but about targeting measures within the places and at the days that matter, to limit risks of exposure. For both the hands and for environmental surfaces hygiene is achieved by the physical removal of organisms from the surface. Alternatively, organisms may be inactivated on-site by a disinfection process or a mixture of both physical removal and disinfection. In many situations like the hands, and cooking and eating utensils, appropriate risk reduction will be achieved using detergent and predicament. However, since, during this situation, hygiene is achieved by removal of the microbes from the surface, if it’s to be effective it must be applied in conjunction with a radical rinsing process with clean water and must understand the strength of attachment of the microbes to the surface (Eginton et al. 1995)

Studies by Schurmann and Eggers (1985) showed that enteric viruses could also be more strongly certain to the skin surface which the inclusion of an abrasive substance, like sand or hydrated aluminium oxide, within the handwash preparation is advisable to realize effective virus removal. Recent studies of the transmission of viruses in a very household setting using bacteria– phage $X174 as a model showed that virus spread wasn’t prevented by the same old standards of hand hygiene as practiced in the household (Rheinbaben et al. 2000). Although these compounds will be used for disinfection of environmental surfaces they’re generally too toxic and irritant to be used on the skin. In achieving decontamination of hands, although hand rub and handwash products currently available may have good activity against bacterial pathogens, activity against viral contamination is variable and depends on the kind of virus. Rotter (1997) suggested that, although alcoholic hand rubs are effective against enveloped viruses like influenza, PIV, herpes, and RSV, activity against non–enveloped viruses like rotaviruses, rhinovirus, poliovirus, adenovirus, NLV, and hepatitis virus is proscribed unless extended contact times (up to 10 min) are used. Similarly, agents like triclosan and chlorhexidine have some activity against the enveloped virus but don’t seem to be considered effective against non– enveloped viruses.

CONCLUSIONS

It is well established that viruses are shed in large numbers and may survive for long periods on surfaces or fomites commonly found in many environments and this emphasizes the possible role of surfaces within the transmission of viruses. Faeces can contain up to 1012 virus particles per gram and spew to 107 per millilitre therefore the potential for hand and environmental contamination is considerable. Viral shedding may begin before the onset of symptoms and should continue for several days or perhaps weeks after the symptoms have ceased, Improved hand washing and surface hygiene procedures are shown to interrupt the transmission of viral infections via hands, surfaces, or fomites. Although the importance of hygiene and most particularly handwashing can not be overemphasized as a way of reducing infections it may be difficult to enforce even in healthcare facilities where staff should bear in mind the infection risks. The importance of hands within the transmission of the virus infections is well recognized and lots of the studies cited during this review relate specifically to handwashing interventions. Most particularly hand contact with contaminated surfaces is probably going to be the reason for such cross-contamination. 

                    To motivate changes in attitude to hygiene it’ll be necessary to realize acceptance that homes and other community settings will always contain potentially harmful microbes which good hygiene isn’t about eradication but about targeting the right measures at the days that matter, to cut back infection risks. there’s a desire for a wider understanding of the potential for contaminated surfaces to act as unidentified vectors of pathogens, within the recontamination of hands, during the infection transmission cycle. The epidemiological evidence to this point shows that raising awareness about the importance of key procedures, like hand washing and surface hygiene (particularly hand and food contact surfaces), will have a substantial impact on the control and prevention of infectious organism

REFERENCE

Barker, D. Stevens1 and S.F. Bloomfield1, Pharmaceutical Sciences Institute, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham and 1Unilever Research Port Sunlight Laboratory, Bebington, Wirral, UK.

Abad, F.X., Pinto, R.M. and Bosch, A. (1994) Survival of enteric viruses on environmental fomites. Applied and Ewnirowmewtal Microbiology 60, S704–S710.

Akhter, J., Al–Hajjar, S., Myint, S. and Hussain Qadri, S.M. (1995) Viral contamination of environmental surfaces on a general pediatric ward and playroom in a major referral centre in Riyadh. European /overhaul of Epidemiology ll, 587–590.

Anon. (199S) Outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis associated with SRSVs.

PHLS Microbiology Digest l0, 2–8.

Anon. (1995) A working party of the Public Health Laboratory service Salmonella Committee. The prevention of human transmission of gastrointestinal infections, infestations, and bacterial intoxications. Communicable Disease Report Review 5, R158–R172.

Anon. (1998) The World Health Report 1998 Life iw the 21st Cewtvry, a

Visiow for All Geneva: World Health Organisation.

Ansari, S.A., Sattar, S.A., Springthorpe, G.A., Wells, G.A. and Tostowaryk, W. (1988) Rotavirus survival on human hands and transfer of infectious virus to animate and non–porous inanimate surfaces. /ovrwal of Cliwical Microbiology 26, 151S–1518.

Ansari, S.A., Springthorpe, V.S. and Sattar, S.A. (1991a) Survival and vehicular spread of human rotaviruses — possible relation to the seasonality of outbreaks. Reviews of Iwfectiovs Diseases lS, 448–461. Ansari, S.A., Springthorpe, V.S., Sattar, S.A., Rivard, S. and Rahman,

(1991b) Potential role of hands in the spread of respiratory viral infections — studies with human parainfluenza virus S and rhino– virus 14. /ovrwal of Cliwical Microbiology 29, 2115–2119.

Asano, Y., Yoshikawa, T., Ihira, M., Furukawa, M., Suzuki, K. and Suga, S. (1999) Spread of varicella–zoster virus DNA to family members and environments from siblings with varicella in a household. Paediatrics l0S, E611–E61S.

Bardell, D. (1989) Hand–to–hand transmission of herpes simplex virus type 1. Microbios 59, 9S–100.

Bardell, D. (1990) Survival of herpes simplex virus type 1 on some frequently touched objects in the home and public buildings. Microbios 6S, 145–150.

Bardell, D. (199S) Survival of herpes simplex virus type 1 in saliva and tap water contaminating some common objects. Microbios 74, 81–87. Bean, B., Moore, B.M., Peterson, L.R., Gerding, D.N. and Balfour,

H.H. (1982) Survival of influenza viruses on environmental surfaces.

/ovrwal of Iwfectiovs Diseases l46, 47–51.

Bellamy, K., Laban, K.L., Barrett, K.E. and Talbot, D.C.S. (1998) Detection of viruses and body fluids which may contain viruses in the domestic environment. Epidemiology awd Iwfectiow l2l, 67S–680. Berglund, B. (1967) Respiratory syncytical virus infections in families.

Acta Paediatrica Scawdiwanica 56, S95–404.

Bern, C., Martines, J., de Zoysa, I. and Glass, R.I. (1992) The magnitude of the global problem of diarrhoeal disease: a ten year update. WHO Bvlletiw 70, 705–714.

Black, R.E., Dykes, A.C., Anderson, K.E., Wells, J.G., Sinclair, S.P., Gary, G.W. Jr, Hatch, M.H. and Gangarosa, E.J. (1981) Hand– washing to prevent diarrhoea in day–care centres. Americaw /ovrwal of Epidemiology llS, 445–451.

Blacklow, N.R. and Greenberg, H.B. (1991) Viral gastroenteritis. New Ewglawd /ovrwal of Mediciwe S25, 252–264.

Bloomfield, S.F. (2001) How hygienic should our homes be? Profes– siowal Care of Mother awd Child ll, S–4.

Bloomfield, S.F. and Scott, E. (1997) Cross–contamination and infection in the domestic environment and the role of chemical disinfectants. /ovrwal of Applied Microbiology 8S, 1–9.

Brady, M.T., Evans, J. and Cuartas, J. (1990) Survival and disinfection of parainfluenza viruses on environmental surfaces. Americaw /ovrwal of Iwfectiow Cowtrol l8, 18–2S.

Brandt, C.D., Kim, H.W., Rodriguez, W.J., Arrobio, J.O., Jeffries,

B.C. and Parrott, R.H. (1982) Rotavirus gastroenteritis and weather.

/ovrwal of Cliwical Microbiology l6, 478–482.

Butz, A.M., Fosarelli, P., Dick, J., Cusack, T. and Yolken, R. (199S) Prevalence of rotavirus on high–risk fomites in day care facilities. Paediatrics 92, 202–205.

Butz, A.M., Larson, E., Fosarelli, P. and Yolken, R. (1990) Occurrence of infectious symptoms in children in day care homes. Americaw

/ovrwal of Iwfectiow Cowtrol l8, S47–S5S.

Carter, C.H., Hendley, J.O., Mika, L.A. and Gwaltney, J.M. (1980) Rhinovirus inactivation by aqueous iodine iw nitro and on skin. Proceediwgs of the Society for Experimewtal Biology awd Mediciwe l65, S80–S8S.

Caul, E.O. (1994) Small round structured viruses — airborne trans– mission and hospital control. Lawcet S4S, 1240–1242.

Chadwick, P.R. and McCann, R. (1994) Transmission of a small round structured virus by vomiting during a hospital outbreak of gastro– enteritis. /ovrwal of Hospital Iwfectiow 26, 251–259.

Chan, P.K.S., Tam, J.S., Nelson, E.A.S., Fung, K.S., Adeyemi–Doro, F.A.B., Fok, T.F. and Cheng, A.F. (1998) Rotavirus infection in Hong Kong: epidemiology and estimates of disease burden. Epidemiology awd Iwfectiow l20, 21–S25.

Cheesbrough, J.S., Barkess–Jones, L. and Brown, D.W. (1997) Possible prolonged environmental survival of small round structured viruses.

/ovrwal of Hospital Iwfectiow S5, S25–S26.

Cheesbrough, J.S., Green, J., Gallimore, C.I., Wright, P.A. and Brown, D.W.G. (2000) Widespread environmental contamination with Norwalk–like viruses (NLV) detected in a prolonged hotel outbreak of gastroenteritis. Epidemiology awd Iwfectiow l25, 9S–98.

Cliver, D.O. (198S) Mawval ow 5ood Virology. Publication No. VPH/

8S.46. Geneva: World Health Organisation.

Couch, R.B. (1990) Rhinoviruses. In 5ields Virology eds. Fields, B.N., Knipe, D.M., Chanock, R.M., Hirsch, M.S., Melnick, J.L., Monath,

T.P. and Roizman, B. pp. 607–629. New York: Raven Press.

Crowcroft, N.S., Cutts, F. and Zambon, M.C. (1999) Respiratory syncytical virus: an underestimated cause of respiratory infection, with prospects for a vaccine. Commvwicable Disease awd Pvblic Health 2, 2S4–241.

Daniels, I.R. and Rees, B.I. (1999) Handwashing: simple but effective.

Awwals of the Royal College of Svrgeows of Ewglawd 8l, 117–118. Dedman, D., Laurichesse, H., Caul, E.O. and Wall, P.G. (1998)

Surveillance of small round structured virus infection in England and Wales, 1990–5. Epidemiology awd Iwfectiow l2l, 1S9–149.

Denny, F.W., Collier, A.M. and Henderson, F.W. (1986) Acute respiratory infections in day care. Reniew of Iwfectiovs Diseases 8, 527–5S2.

Dickinson, C.J. (1992) Hepatitis A — new information on an old virus.

Hepatology l6, 1099–1101.

Djuretic, T., Ryan, M.J., Fleming, D.M. and Wall, P.G. (1996) Infectious intestinal disease in elderly people. Commvwicable Disease Report Reniew 6, R107–R112.

Eccles, R. (2000) International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene. Spread of common colds and influenza. World Wide Web. Http:// www.ifh–homehygiene.org/newspage/new05.htm.

Eginton, P.J., Gibson, H., Holah, J., Handley, P.S. and Gilbert, P. (1995) Quantification of the ease of removal of bacteria from surfaces. /ovrwal of Iwdvstrial Microbiology l5, S05–S10.

Evans, H.S., Madden, P., Douglas, C., Adak, G.K., O‘Brien, S.J., Djuretic, T., Wall, P.G. and Stanwell–Smith, R. (1998) General outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease in England and Wales: 1995 and 1996. Commvwicable Disease awd Pvblic Health l, 165–171.

Falsey, A.R., Criddle, M.M., Kolassa, J.E., McCann, R.M., Brower,

C.A. and Hall, W.J. (1999) Evaluation of a handwashing intervention to reduce respiratory illness rates in senior day–care centers. Iwfectiow Cowtrol awd Hospital Epidemiology 20, 200–202.

Fornasini, M., Reves, R.R., Murray, B.E. and Pickering, L.K. (1992) Trimethoprim–resistant Escherichia coli in households of children attending day care centres. /ovrwal of Iwfectiovs Diseases l66, S26–SS0.

Fox, M.K., Langner, S.B. and Wells, R.W. (1974) How good is handwashing practice? Americaw /ovrwal of Nvrsiwg 74, 1676–1678. Gellert, G.A., Waterman, S.H. and Ewert, D. (1994) An outbreak of gastro–enteritis caused by small round structured virus in a geriatric convalescent facility. Iwfectiow Cowtrol awd Hospital Epidemiology ll,

459–464.

Glass, R.I., Bresee, J.S., Parashar, U.D., Miller, M.A. and Gentsch, J.R. (1997) Rotavirus vaccines at the threshold. Natvre Mediciwe S, 10–11.

Goldmann, D.A. (2000) Transmission of viral respiratory infections in the home. Paediatric Iwfectiovs Disease /ovrwal l9, S97–S102.

Gray, J.J., Wreghitt, T.G., Cubitt, W.D. and Elliott, P.R. (1987) An outbreak of gastroenteritis in a home for the elderly associated with astrovirus type 1 and humans calicivirus. /ovrwal of Medical Virology 2S, S77–S81.

Green, J., Wright, P.A., Gallimore, C.I., Mitchell, O., Morgan– Capner, P. and Brown, D.W.G. (1998) The role of environmental contamination with small round structured viruses in a hospital outbreak investigated by reverse–transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. /ovrwal of Hospital Iwfectiow S9, S9–45.

Grimwood, K., Abbott, G.D., Fergusson, D.M., Jennings, L.C. and Allan, J.M. (198S) Spread of rotavirus with families: a community– based study. British Medical /ovrwal 287, 57–59.

Gwaltney, J.M. and Hendley, J.O. (1982) Transmission of experimen– tal rhinovirus infection by contaminated surfaces. Americaw /ovrwal of Epidemiology ll6, 828–8SS.

Gwaltney, J.M. Jr, Moskalski, P.B. and Hendley, J.O. (1978) Hand– to–hand transmission of rhinovirus colds. Awwals of Iwterwal Mediciwe 88, 46S–467.

Hadler, S.C. and McFarland, L. (1986) Hepatitis in day care centers: epidemiology and prevention. Reniews of Iwfectiovs Diseases 8, 548–557. Hadler, S.C., Webster, H.M., Erben, J.J., Swanson, J.E. and Maynard,

J.E. (1980) Hepatitis A in daycare centers — a community–wide assessment. New Ewglawd /ovrwal of Mediciwe S02, 1222–1227.

Hall, C.B. (1987) Parainfluenza viruses. In Textbook of Paediatric Iwfectiovs Diseases eds Feigin, R.D. and Cherry, J.D. pp. 16S2–1646. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Hall, C.B., Douglas, R.G. Jr and Geiman, J.M. (1976b) Respiratory syncytical virus infections in infants: quantitation and duration of shedding. /ovrwal of Paediatrics 89, 11–15.

Hall, C.B., Douglas, R. Jr and Geiman, J.M. (1980) Possible trans– mission by fomites of respiratory syncytial virus. /ovrwal of Iwfectiovs Diseases l4l, 98–102.

Hall, C.B., Geiman, J.M., Biggar, R., Kotok, D.I., Kogan, P.M. and Douglas, R.G. (1976a) Respiratory syncytial virus infections within families. New Ewglawd /ovrwal of Mediciwe 294, 414–419.

Helfand, R.F., Khan, A.S., Pallansch, M.A., Alexander, J.P., Meyers, H.B., DeSantis, R.A., Schonberger, L.B. and Anderson, L.J. (1994) Echovirus S0 infection and aseptic meningitis in parents of children attending a child–care centre. /ovrwal of Iwfectiovs Diseases l69, 11SS–11S7.

Hendley, J.O., Wenzel, R.P. and Gwaltney, J.M. (197S) Transmission of rhinovirus colds by self inoculation. New Ewglawd /ovrwal of Mediciwe 288, 1S61–1S64.

Ho, M.–S., Glass, R.I., Monroe, S.S., Madore, H.P., Stine, S., Pinsky, P.F., Cubitt, D., Ashley, C. and Caul, E.O. (1989) Viral gastroen– teritis aboard a cruise ship. Lawcet 2, 961–965.

Horsfall, F.L. Jr (1965) General principles and historical aspects. In Viral awd Rickettsial Iwfectiows of Maw ed. Horsfall, F.L. Jr & Tamm, I. pp. 1–10. New York: Lippincott.

Isaacs, D., Day, D. and Crook, S. (1986) Childhood gastroenteritis: a population study. British Medical /ovrwal 29S, 545–546.

Isaacs, D., Dickson, H., O‘Callaghan, C., Sheaves, R., Winter, A. and Moxon, E.R. (1991) Handwashing and cohorting in prevention of hospital acquired infections with respiratory syncytial virus. Archines of Disease iw Childhood 66, 227–2S1.

Jiang, X., Dai, X., Goldblatt, S., Buescher, C., Cusack, T.M., Matson,

D.O. and Pickering, L.K. (1998) Pathogen transmission in child care settings studied by using a cauliflower virus DNA as a surrogate marker. /ovrwal of Iwfectiovs Diseases l77, 881–888.

Jones, M.V. (1998) Application of HACCP to identifying hygiene risks in the home. Iwterwatiowal Biodeterioratiow awd Biodegradatiow 4l, 191–199.

Kellner, G., Popow–Kraupp, T., Kundi, M., Binder, C., Wallner, H. and Kunz, C. (1988) Contribution of rhinoviruses to respiratory viral infections in childhood: a prospective study on a mentally hospit– alized infant population. /ovrwal of Medical Virology 25, 455–469.

Keswick, B.H., Pickering, L.K., DuPont, H.L. and Woodward, W.E. (198Sa) Prevalence of rotavirus in children in day–care centres.

/ovrwal of Paediatrics l0S, 85–86.

Keswick, B.H., Pickering, L.K., DuPont, H.L. and Woodward, W.E. (198Sb) Survival and detection of rotaviruses on environmental surfaces in day care centres. Applied awd Ewnirowmewtal Microbiology 46, 81S–816.

Kilgore, P.E., Unicomb, L.E., Gentsch, J.R., Albert, M.J., McElroy,

C.A. and Glass, R.I. (1996) Neonatal rotavirus infection in Bangladesh: strain characterization and risk factors for nosocomial infection. Paediatric Iwfectiovs Diseases l5, 672–677.

Krilov, L.R., Barone, S.R., Mandel, F.S., Cusack, T.M., Gaber, D.J. and Rubino, J.R. (1996) Impact of an infection control program in a specialized preschool. Americaw /ovrwal of Iwfectiow Cowtrol 24, 167–17S.

Krilov, L., Pierik, L., Keller, E., Mahan, K., Watson, D., Hirsch, M., Hamparian, V. and McIntosh, K. (1986).

rhinoviruses with lower respiratory tract diseases in hospitalized patients. /ovrwal of Medical Virology l9, S45–S52.

Larson, T. and Bryson, Y. (1982) Fomites and herpes simples virus: the toilet seat revisited. Paediatric Research l6, 244, abstract no. 995. LeBaron, C.W., Furutan, N.P., Lew, J.F., Allen, J.R., Gouvae, V., Moe, C. and Monroe, S.S. (1990) Viral agents of gastroenteritis: public health importance and outbreak management. Morbidity awd

Mortality Weekly Report S9, 1–24.

Lew, J.F., Moe, C.L., Monroe, S.S., Allen, J.R., Harrison, B.M., Forrester, B.D., Stine, S.E., Woods, P.A., Hierholzer, J.C., Herr– mann, J.E., Blacklow, N.R., Bartlett, A.V. and Glass, R.I. (1991) Astrovirus and adenovirus associated with diarrhoea in children in day care settings. /ovrwal of Iwfectiovs Diseases l64, 67S–678.

Lewis, D.C., Lightfoot, N.F., Cubitt, W.D. and Wilson, S.A. (1989) Outbreaks of astrovirus type 1 and rotavirus gastroenteritis in a geriatric inpatient population. /ovrwal of Hospital Iwfectiow l4, 9–14. Lewis, H.M., Parry, J.V. and Davies, H.A. (1979) A year‘s experience of the rotavirus syndrome and its association with respiratory illness.

Archines of Disease iw Childhood 54, 125–128.

Lieberman, J.M. (1994) Rotavirus and other viral causes of gastroen– teritis. Paediatric Awwals 2S, 529–5S5.

Marks, P.J., Vipond, I.B., Carlisle, D., Deakin, D., Fey, R.E. and Caul,

E.O. (2000) Evidence for airborne transmission of Norwalk–like virus (NLV) in a hotel restaurant. Epidemiology awd Iwfectiow l24, 481–487.

Mathias, K.A. (1999) The use of consumer knowledge, beliefs and attitudes in the development of a local authority strategy for domestic food hygiene education. MPhil Thesis. Open University. Mbithi, J.N., Springthorpe, V.S., Boulet, J.R. and Sattar, S.A. (1992) Survival of hepatitis A virus on human hands and its transfer on contact with animate and inanimate surfaces. /ovrwal of Cliwical

Microbiology S0, 757–76S.

Mbithi, J.N., Springthorpe, V.S. and Sattar, S.A. (1991) Effect of relative humidity and air temperature on survival of Hepatitis A virus on environmental surfaces. Applied awd Ewnirowmewtal Micro– biology 57, 1S94–1S99.

McEvoy, M., Blake, W., Brown, D., Green, J. and Cartwright, R. (1996) An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis on a cruise ship. Commvwicable Disease Report Reniew 6, R188–R192.

McGuckin, M., Waterman, R., Porten, L., Bello, S., Caruso, Juzaitis, B., Krug, E., Mazer, S. and Ostrawski, S. (1999) Patient education model for increasing handwashing compliance. Americaw

/ovrwal of Iwfectiow Cowtrol 27, S09–S14.

Melnick, J.L. (1995) History and epidemiology of Hepatitis A virus.

/ovrwal of Iwfectiovs Diseases l7l (Suppl. 1), S2–S8.

Minor, T.E., Allen, C.I., Tsiatis, A.A., Nelson, D.B. and Alessio, D.J. (1981) Human infective dose determinations for oral poliovirus type 1 vaccine in infants. /ovrwal of Cliwical Microbiology lS, S88–S89.

Minuk, G.Y., Ding, L.X., Hannon, C. and Sekla, L. (1994) The risks of transmission of acute hepatitis A and B virus infection in an urban centre. /ovrwal of Hepatology 2l, 118–121.

Mitchell, D.K. Van R., Morrow, A.L., Monroe, S.S., Glass, R.I. and Pickering, L.K. (199S) Outbreaks of astrovirus gastroenterititis in day care centres. /ovrwal of Paediatrics l2S, 725–7S2.

Morens, D.M. and Rash, V.M. (1995) Lessons from a nursing home outbreak of influenza A. Iwfectiow Cowtrol awd Hospital Epidemiology l6, 275–280.

Nerurkar, L.S., West, F., May, M., Madden, D.L. and Sever, J.L. (198S) Survival of herpes simplex in water specimens collected from hot tubs in spa facilities and on plastic surfaces. /ovrwal of the Americaw Medical Associatiow 22, S081–S08S.

Nicholson, K.G. (1996) Impact of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus on mortality in England and Wales from January, 1975 to December, 1990. Epidemiology awd Iwfectiow ll6, 51–6S.

Nicholson, K.G., Kent, J., Hammersley, V. and Cancio, E. (1997) Acute viral infections of upper respiratory tract in elderly people living in the community: comparative, prospective, populations based study of disease burden. British Medical /ovrwal Sl5, 1060–1064.

Niffenegger, J.P. (1997) Proper handwashing promotes wellness in child care. /ovrwal of Paediatric Health Care ll, 26–S1.

Nishimura, S., Kagehira, M., Kono, F., Nishimura, M. and Taenaka,

  1. (1999) Handwashing before entering the intensive care unit: what we learned from continuous video–camera surveillance. Americaw

/ovrwal of Iwfectiow Cowtrol 27, S67–S69.

Osterholm, M.T., Reves, R.R., Murph, J.R. and Pickering, L.K. (1992) Infectious diseases and child day care. Paediatric Iwfectiovs Diseases /ovrwal ll, SS1–S41.

Pang, X.L., Honma, S., Nakata, S. and Verikari, T. (2000) Human caliciviruses in acute gastro–enteritis of young children in the community. /ovrwal of Iwfectiovs Diseases l8l, S288–S294.

Parashar, U.D., Bresee, J.S., Gentsch, J.R. and Glass, R.I. (1998a) Rotavirus. Emergiwg Iwfectiovs Diseases 4, 561–570.

Parashar, U.D., Holman, R.C., Clarke, M.J., Bresee, J.S. and Glass,

R.I. (1998b) Hospitalizations associated with rotavirus diarrhoea in the US, 199S through 1995: surveillance based on the new ICD– 9–CM rotavirus specific diagnostic code. /ovrwal of Iwfectiovs Diseases l77, 7–1S.

Patterson, W., Haswell, P., Fryers, P.T. and Green, J. (1997) Outbreak of small round structured virus gastroenteritis arose after kitchen assistant vomited. Commvwicable Disease Report Reniew 7, R101–R10S.

Pickering, L.K., Bartlett frequency of diarrhoeal episodes in child are: a randomised, controlled trial. Paediatrics l05, 74S–746.

Rodriguez, W.J., Kim, H.W., Brandt, C.D., Schwartz, R.H., Gardner, M.K., Jeffries, B., Parrott, R.H., Kaslow, R.A., Smith, J.L. and Kapikain, A.Z. (1987) Longitudinal study of rotavirus infection and gastroenteritis in families served by a paediatric medical practice: clinical and epidemiological observations. Paediatric Iwfectiovs Diseases 6, 170–176.

Rodriguez, W.J., Kim, H.W., Brandt, C.D., Yolken, R., Richard, M., Arrobio, J.O., Schwartz, R.H., Kapikian, A.Z., Chanock, R.M. and Parrott, R.H. (1979) Common exposure outbreak of gastroenteritis due to type 2 rotavirus with high secondary attack rates within families. /ovrwal of Iwfectiovs Diseases l40, S5S–S57.

Rotter, M.L. (1997) Handwashing and hand disinfection. In Prenewtiow

awd Cowtrol of Nosocomial Iwfectiows ed. Wenzel, R.P. pp. 1052–1068. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ryan, M.J., Ramsey, M.E., Brown, D., Gay, N.J., Farrington, C.P. and Wall, P.G. (1996) Hospital admissions attributable to rotavirus infection in England and Wales. /ovrwal of Iwfectiovs Diseases l74, S12–S18.

Ryan, M.J., Wall, P.G., Adak, G.K., Evans, H.S. and Cowden, J.M. (1997) Outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease in residential institutions in England and Wales 1992–4. /ovrwal of Iwfectiow S4, 49–54.

Samadi, A.R., Huq, M.I. and Ahmed, Q.S. (198S) Detection of rotavirus in handwashings of attendants of children with diarrhoea. British Medical /ovrwal 286, 188.

Sattar, S.A., Jacobsen, H., Springthorpe, S., Cusack, T. and Rubino, J. (199S) Chemical disinfection to interrupt the transfer of Rhinovirus type 14 from environmental surfaces to hands. Applied awd Ewnirowmewtal Microbiology 59, 1579–1585.

Sattar, S.A., Lloyd–Evans, N. and Springthorpe, V.S. (1986) Institu– tional outbreaks of rotavirus diarrhoea: potential role of fomites and environmental surfaces as vehicles for virus transmission. /ovrwal of Hygiewe 96, 277–289.

Sattar, S.A. and Springthorpe, S. (1999) Viricidal activity of biocides. Activity against human viruses. In Priwciples awd Practice of Disiwfectiow, Presernatiow awd Sterilisatiow, Srd edn. eds Russell, A.D., Hugo, W.B. and Ayliffe, G.A.J. pp. 168–186. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Schurmann, W. and Eggers, H.J. (1985) An experimental study on the epidemiology of enteroviruses — water and soap washing of polio– virus 1 contaminated hands, its effectiveness and kinetics. Medical Microbiology awd Immvwology l74, 221–2S6.

Scott, E. (1999) Hygiene issues in the home. Americaw /ovrwal of Iwfectiow Cowtrol 27, S22–S25., A.V., Reeves, R.R. and Morrow, A. (1988) Asymptomatic excretion of rotavirus before and after rotavirus diarrhoea in children in day care centres. /ovrwal of Paediatrics ll2, S61–S65.

Pittet, D., Mourouga, P. and Pereger, T.V. (1999) Compliance with handwashing in a teaching hospital. Awwals of Iwterwal Mediciwe lS0, 126–1S0.

Reed, S.E. (1975) An investigation on the possible transmission of rhinovirus colds through indirect contact. /ovrwal of Hygiewe (Cambridge) 75, 249–258.

Rheinbaben, F.V., Schu¨ nemann, S., Bro3, T. and Wolff, M.H. (2000) Transmission of viruses via contact in a household setting: experiments using bacteriophage $X174 as a model virus. /ovrwal

of Hospital Iwfectiow 46, 61–66.

Richardson, S., Grimwood, K., Gorrell, R., Palombo, E., Barnes, G. and Bishop, R. (1998) Extended excretion of rotavirus after severe diarrhoea in young children. Lawcet S5l, 1844–1848.

Roberts, L., Jorm, L., Patel, M., Smith, W., Douglas, R.M. and McGilchrist, C. (2000a) Effect of infection control measures on the frequency of upper respiratory infection in child care: a randomised, controlled trial. Paediatrics l05, 7S8–742.

 

Roberts, L., Jorm, L., Patel, M., Smith, W., Douglas, R.M. and McGilchrist, C. (2000b) Effect of infection control measures on the

Simoes, E.A.F. (1999) Respiratory syncytial virus  infection. Lawcet

S54, 847–852.

Smith, C.B., Purcell, R.H., Bellanti, J.A. and Chanock, R.M. (1966) Protective effect of antibody to parainfluenza type 1 virus. New Ewglawd /ovrwal of Mediciwe 275, 1145–1149.

Soule, H., Genoulaz, O., Gratacap–Cavallier, B., Mallaret, M.R., Morand, P., Francois, P., Bin, D.L.D., Charvier, A., Bost–Bru, C. and Seigneurin, J.–M. (1999) Monitoring rotavirus environmental contamination in a paediatric unit using polymerase chain reaction. Iwfectiow Cowtrol awd Hospital Epidemiology 20, 4S2–4S4.

Sperber, S.J. (1994) The common cold. Mediciwe ll, 2S5–242.

St. Sauver, J., Khurana, M., Kao, A. and Foxman, B. (1998) Hygienic practices and acute respiratory illness in family and group day care homes. Pvblic Health Reports llS, 544–551.

Stevens, R.A. and Holah, J.T. (199S) The effect of wiping and spray– wash temperature on bacterial retention on abraded domestic sink surfaces. /ovrwal of Applied Bacteriology 75, 91–94.

Sundkvist, T., Hamilton, G.R., Hourihan, B.M. and Hart, I.J. (2000) Outbreak of hepatitis A spread by contaminated drinking glasses in a public house. Commvwicable Disease awd Pvblic Health S, 60–62.

Thompson, S.C. (1994) Infectious diarrhoea in children: controlling transmission in the child care setting. /ovrwal of Paediatrics awd Child Health S0, 210–219.

Uhari, M. and Mottonen, M. (1999) An open randomized controlled trail of infection prevention in child day–care centres. /ovrwal of Paediatrics awd Iwfectiovs Diseases l8, 672–677.

Valenti, W.M. (1998) Selected viruses of nosocomial importance. In Hospital Iwfectiows, 4th edn. eds Bennett, J.V. and Brachman, P.S. pp. 6S7–664. Philadelphia: Lippincott–Raven.

Ward, R., Bernstein, D., Knowlton, D., Sherwood, J., Yung, E., Cusack, T., Rubino, J. and Schiff, G. (1991) Prevention of surface– to–human transmission of rotavirus by treatment with disinfectant spray. /ovrwal of Cliwical Microbiology 29, 1991–1996.

Ward, R.L., Bernstein, D.I., Young, E.C., Sherwood, J.R., Knowlton,

D.R. and Schiff, G.M. (1986) Human rotavirus studies in volun– teers: determination of infectious dose and serological response to infection. /ovrwal of Iwfectiovs Disease l54, 871–880.

Wheeler, J.G., Sethi, D., Cowden, J.M., Wall, P.G., Rodrigues, L.C., Tompkins, D.S., Hudson, M.J. and Roderick, P.J. (1999) Study of infectious intestinal disease in England: rates in the community, presenting to general practice and reported to national surveillance. British Medical /ovrwal Sl8, 1046–1055.

Wilde, J.R., Pickering, L., Eiden, J. and Yolken, R. (1992) Detection of rotaviruses in the day care environment by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. /ovrwal of Iwfectiovs Disease l66, 507–511.

Scroll to Top