IMPORTANT ROLE OF WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN C IN ROUTINE LIFESTYLE

Mr. MAHENDRA SINGH

(Masters in Pharmacology from Truba institute of pharmacy affiliated with RGPV University Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh India)

Mr. MANOJ VISHWAKARAMA

(Masters in Pharmacology from Truba institute of pharmacy affiliated with RGPV University Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh India)

VOL .03  ISSUE 11

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ABSTRACT:

The importance of water-soluble vitamins as to how to stop scurvy has been known for hundreds of years. Modern research on water-soluble vitamins has expanded beyond scurvy prevention, providing promising evidence for extra health benefits and clinical applications. This review of scientific literature will evaluate many aspects of water-soluble vitamins, including deficient versus optimal plasma levels, adequate daily amounts necessary to keep up ideal levels, and therefore the safety of upper doses. It’ll also concentrate on the importance of vitamin C as a strong bioactive compound, and its use in the prevention and management of various chronic diseases. This review is critical to precise the importance of different healthcare methods in both preventative and clinical care. This review focuses on studies involving human participants that address how vitamin C is vital for our health.

 

KEYWORD:

vitamin C, deficiency, disease, dose, health, supplementation, vitamin C

 

INTRODUCTION:

Vitamin C was first identified in fruits (citrus), vegetables, and adrenal glands as hexuronic acid within the 1920s by Albert von Szent-Gyorgyi, a Hungarian biochemist. Vitamin C could be a crucial component of human health. This particular vitamin is water-soluble (causing quick elimination and preventing storage) and can’t be synthesized by humans; therefore, it’s essential that water-soluble vitamins be incorporated into our diet [2]. the actual mechanism that forestalls synthesis is that the absence of gluconolactone oxidase (GLO) [3], which is critical to catalyzing the enzyme L-gulono-1,4-lactone oxidase, the ultimate step within the biosynthetic pathway of antioxidant [4]. There are numerous reasons why ascorbic acid is vital to our health, but many relate to how it’s essential for the synthesis of collagen, carnitine, and norepinephrine [5].

The two main components of ascorbic acid are ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) [3]. The transport of ascorbate through the frame involves two sodium-dependent water-soluble vitamin transporters (SVCT): SVCT1 and SVCT2 [6]. the bulk of ascorbate is transported by SVCT1 in epithelial cells (e.g. brain and eye) [7]. DHA (the oxidized kind of ascorbate) is transported within the bod through 2 glucose transporters (GLUT): GLUT1 and GLUT3 [6] (a third transporter, GLUT 4, is employed just for insulin-sensitive tissues [8]). Once DHA has been transported inside the cell by a GLUT, it’s reduced back to ascorbate [6]. The distribution and homeostasis of the water-soluble vitamins within the figure are regulated by the SVCTs, GLUTs, facilitated diffusion through channels, and exocytosis in secretory vesicles [9]. the most concentrations of vitamin C are located in the brain and adrenal cells.

 

VITAMIN C AS AN ANTIOXIDANT:

The importance of antioxidants stems from their powerful antioxidant capacity. Out of the three different antioxidant defense systems, vitamin C is classed as a sequence breaking antioxidant; specifically, an aqueous phase chain-breaking antioxidant [11]. As an antioxidant, ascorbic acid protects low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) from being oxidized, decreases damaging oxidation within the stomach, and facilitates the absorption of iron [8]. In one study examining the chemical composition of broccoli and cauliflower, the water-soluble vitamin was shown to possess the best direct correlation of phytochemicals (phenol, flavonoid, and glucosinolate), and therefore the second-highest antioxidant activity (only 9.5% less than total phenol) [12].

power of vitamin C to produce oxidant protection by scavenging excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), which causes oxidant damage [19-20]. When more antioxidant is produced because of recycling, the power to safeguard the body against damage is increased. Another reason why vitamin C is very important is its ability to facilitate proper iron levels. In one comparison study, individuals who consumed 247 mg of ascorbic acid daily had 35% higher iron absorption levels than people who consumed 51 mg of vitamin C daily [21].

 

VITAMIN C DEFICIENCY –INDIVIDUALS AT RISK:

One reason for this review is that the high prevalence of ascorbic acid-deficient individuals. there’s a robust correlation that individuals who smoke tobacco are in danger to be deficient in ascorbic acid [22]. This has been demonstrated by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), which specifies on their Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) that smokers require an extra 35 mg, of ascorbic acid daily to take care of adequate levels [23]. One reason for this association is that smokers tend to consume a less healthy diet (specifically fewer fruits and vegetables) [24], resulting in a 16% decrease in antioxidant intake [25]. another excuse is that cigarette smoke causes water-soluble vitamins to be depleted at a far faster rate, to complete the oxidative stress [25].

                                                                                There is also an association between lower income households and antioxidant deficiency within the UK, a study was conducted on the 15% lowest income households to see plasma antioxidant levels [27]. The results indicated that 26% of men and 16% of ladies were vitamin C deficient. Women who are pregnant are in danger of antioxidant deficiency, because of increased oxidative stress [36]. Pregnant women who are obese (BMI >30?kg?m?2) have a greater risk of low ascorbic acid levels than pregnant women of a healthy weight (BMI 18–25?kg?m?2) because their oxidative stress is larger [37]. Low water-soluble vitamin levels during pregnancy can cause various health issues for the fetus, like low birth weight [36]. many ladies take iron supplements during pregnancy, which are shown to decrease antioxidant levels. In one study, pregnant women who were taking iron supplements had a 24% decrease in water-soluble vitamin levels from the first to the 3rd , trimester, while women who weren’t taking iron supplements only had a 3.7% loss [38]. Individuals who are being treated in hospitals may additionally suffer from an antioxidant deficiency. this is often very true for maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. One study determined that 44.1% of MHD patients are antioxidant deficient with 28 ?mol/L or 0.4-0.9 9 mg/dl [41-42]. a private with depleted ascorbic acid will have plasma levels between 11–28 ?mol/L or 0.2-0.39 mg/dl [41-42].

In another study highlighting the antioxidant capacity of jujube fruits, vitamin C had the very best correlation within the 2,2? azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6) acid (ABTS) scavenging method (which establishes antioxidant activity) [13].

 

WHY ANTIOXIDANTS IS SO IMPORTANT TO HEALTH:

It should be considered a functional food ingredient because it is a crucial bioactive compound with antioxidant properties.  

                  Those health benefits are numerous and can be discussed further in an exceedingly later section. one in all its most vital aspects involves its role in cognitive functions, because of its high concentration within the brain [15]. This affects us in several ways throughout our life. Concerning our early years, there’s animal-model data that implies vitamin C deficiency in newborns could end in impaired spatial memory, because of decreased neurons (~30% loss) within the hippocampus [16]. As we grow old, the importance of an adequate amount of daily water-soluble vitamins over a lifetime could help prevent certain degenerative diseases. for instance, antioxidants could be the main defense against dopamine autotoxicity, a serious component of Parkinson’s disease [17].

 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE OF ANTI-OXIDANTS:

In a general sense, water-soluble vitamin acts as a cofactor and reduces certain enzymes by providing them with electrons, because of its chemical structure [8]. Those enzymes can react with biomolecules called lipids, proteins, and DNA, and cause harm. to assist prevent this, ascorbic acid reduces oxygen species when lipid peroxidation is made, reduces radical inhibitors in protein oxidation, and prevents nitrosamine formation to scale back DNA damage [18]. The role of antioxidants in health can be associated with their recycling ability within the presence of microorganisms [19]. When microorganisms are present, the number of ascorbic acid in neutrophils is 30 times above in neutrophils that don’t have microorganisms [19].

                                                       In another study highlighting the antioxidant capacity of jujube fruits, vitamin C had the very best correlation within the 2,2? azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6) acid (ABTS) scavenging method (which establishes antioxidant activity) [13].

PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE OF ANTI-OXIDANTS:

In a general sense, water-soluble vitamin acts as a cofactor and reduces certain enzymes by providing them with electrons, because of its chemical structure [8]. Those enzymes can react with bimolecular called lipids, proteins, and DNA, and cause harm. to assist prevent this, ascorbic acid reduces oxygen species when lipid peroxidation is made, reduces radical inhibitors in protein oxidation, and prevents nitrosamine formation to scale back DNA damage [18]. The role of antioxidants in health can be associated with their recycling ability within the presence of microorganisms [19]. When microorganisms are present, the number of ascorbic acid in neutrophils is 30 times above in neutrophils that don’t have microorganisms [19]. this is often important because of the

For a person to be deficient, their water-soluble vitamin plasma Levels must be In terms of gender, there’s evidence to suggest that both men and girls should have an RDA of 90 mg [58]. The RDA of 90 mg for men was calculated from depletion-repletion study data [59], and therefore the RDA for girls was calculated from the men’s dose by accounting for weight differences (depletion-repletion study data wasn’t available for women) [23].  saturation and urinary excretion [58]. Some studies and reviews have determined that 200 mg daily is that the optimal intake [59-60], with others claiming that 1,000 mg (500 mg twice daily) provides the simplest health effects [61]. In terms of bioavailability, the absorption efficiency of water-soluble vitamins is 89% for 15 mg/day, 87% for 30 mg/day, 85% for 50 mg/day, 80% for 100 Although the upper intake is tolerated and absorbed to a specific extent, the utmost bioavailability seems to peak at 500 mg [51].

         Though water-soluble vitamin tends to be tolerated, even with high doses, maximum limits are established. While the USDA has determined the UL for antioxidant at 2 g daily, the utmost tolerated single dose is 3 g [63], and also the maximum tolerated. the daily dose is eighteen g [64]. Those doses can’t be reached from food and beverage consumption; they need to be administered through either oral supplementation or intravenous (IV) injection.

 

IV AND ORAL SUPPLEMENTATION:

Though vitamin C intake should primarily come from whole foods (to be discussed later), there are reasons to require either IV or oral supplements. Many individuals don’t have access to foods high in vitamin C because of financial (e.g. high cost of produce) or physical (e.g. no local grocery store) limitations. Others may require more water-soluble vitamin because of a genetic predisposition, disease, or diet restriction [65]. Outside of trying to make sure a correct daily intake, one more reason for taking supplements is for a pharmacologic effect within the treatment of diseases [65]. For individuals looking to make sure a correct daily intake of antioxidant, oral supplementation is efficient. within the clinical setting, however, IV dosing is more regularly used. this is often because IV dosing of antioxidants produces a way higher plasma concentration than an oral dose. it’s been shown that a 3 g oral dose produces a peak plasma concentration of 220 μmol/L, whereas a 3 g IV dose produces a peak plasma concentration of 1760 μmol/L [63]. IV dosing also has the potential to extend peak plasma concentrations with an increased dose, whereas oral dosing eventually reaches a plateau in peak plasma concentration [63].

 

INCORPORATING VITAMIN C WITHIN THE DIET:

Vitamin C may be a crucial element to a healthy diet, and there are several ways to form sure we are ingesting an adequate daily amount. Though the chemical components of vitamin C supplements (oral/IV) and ascorbic acid in food are identical, the good thing about ingesting natural food-based ascorbic acid allows for the consumption of other important nutrients simultaneously [66]. this can be important for both a diet and for the increased health effects of certain nutrients. As mentioned earlier, vitamin C can help facilitate iron absorption [15, 21], so consuming foods rich in those nutrients together (i.e. a spinach salad topped with strawberries), would improve nutritional benefits. Another healthy combination is antioxidant and E, as they work together to inhibit oxidation [67]. Furthermore, vitamin C can help restore tocopherol levels by reducing ?-tocopherol (vitamin E radical) back to vitamin E [67]. Multiple studies have also shown that there’s either little difference (in terms of plasma levels and urinary excretion) between supplemental and food-based ascorbic acid or that food-based water-soluble vitamin provides better absorption than supplements [68-70]. With the good thing about symbiotic nutrient relationships and similar/better reactions thereto of supplements, food-based antioxidants could also be the simplest choice for healthy individuals to get their daily requirements.

             To ensure that individuals are becoming the foremost water-soluble vitamin in their diet, there are some items to think about. One concerns the realm during which individuals live and therefore the availability of produce. In areas with limited production because of the climate, individuals can attain vitamin C from herbs and organ meats [15]. If people sleep in a part without a fresh or maybe frozen produce section in their local market, they’ll be limited to canned fruits and vegetables, which have a far lower antioxidant content [5]. Even fruit juice (the most often purchased vitamin C-rich food [71]) tends to be an inadequate source. At 4 weeks before expiration, fruit crush may only have ~75% of the vitamin C claimed on the nutrition label, and it degrades by ~2% daily after it’s opened, resulting in ~25% at expiration [72]. In these situations, the simplest method would be to get canned fruits and vegetables that have the best vitamin C content, and to settle on the newest expiration date on juices rich in water-soluble vitamins, consuming them promptly after purchasing.

              Even when individuals do have access to fresh fruits and vegetables, there are many factors that will degrade water-soluble vitamin content. The preparation of foods is one factor which will make a large difference. Boiling tends to degrade the vitamin C content of vegetables, with a mean of fifty.9% loss in common vegetables (Table 2) [73-77]. This evidence is further shown in a very recent randomized double-blind placebo control study. the two test groups both consumed 350 g of vegetables daily.

                  A cooked the food using specialized cookware that failed to require the employment of excess water, while type B cooked the food using standard methods (i.e. boiling). in only 2 weeks, the blood antioxidant levels in the blood group increased by ~17%, whereas B only increased by ~9% [78]. As shown by that study, cooking vegetables without the employment of excess water can help to preserve ascorbic acid content. Stir-frying is one method, which shows a reasonably minimal 29.9% average antioxidant loss (table 2) [73, 75-77]. Steaming foods (in a microwave or stovetop) is a decent compromise to boiling. The antioxidant content is preserved fairly well in steaming, with only a median 14.3% loss (Table 2) [73, 75-77, 79]

 Food storage is additionally a significant factor for maintaining adequate vitamin C levels, and it’s been established that prime temperature and/or long storage periods degrade the water-soluble vitamin concentration of foods [80-82]. If food won’t be eaten immediately after purchasing, the most effective method of storage (to maintain the best level of vitamin C) would be freezing. for instance, baby corn loses 11.6% after 3 months (0oC) [83], and broccoli and peas lose 10% after 12 months (-20oC) [84].

              For individuals who have access to fresh produce, the mandatory amount needed to attain the RDA of 75 mg (women) and 90 mg (men) [23] isn’t difficult to achieve. As shown in Table 3, some common foods (such as kiwi and red pepper) can provide quite double the RDA of ascorbic acid for men and ladies with just 1 cup. this can be even more exaggerated in Rosehips, providing an improbable 473.3% RDA for men and 568% RDA for ladies (Table 3). If individuals abide by the advice to eat 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily (or 400- 500g as determined by the globe Health Organization (WHO) and also the Food and Agricultural Organization of the world organization (FAO) [85]) then their antioxidant intake would be between 210-280 mg [53]. In summary, a number of the most effective ways to confirm proper intake are: consume fruits, vegetables, and juices high in vitamin C; choose fresh and/or frozen products over canned when available; consume fresh produce/juice within every week of purchasing; eat foods raw or cook by steaming, and store produce not intended for immediate use in the freezer.

(Modified from U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. USDA National Nutrient Database for normal Reference Release 27 [86], & National Nutrient Database for normal Reference [87]) . a method to facilitate a rise of antioxidants within the diet is to supplement foods with additional ascorbic acid. A review of the pros and cons of water-soluble vitamin enhancement in plants is completed, including methods using biosynthesis improvement and vitamin C recycling [2]. this sort of recombinant DNA technology could help communities with a limited form of produce. as an example, potatoes are a heavily consumed vegetable in both whole and processed varieties, and individuals usually have access to them in one form or another. Studies have shown 2-3 fold increases in typical ascorbic acid levels of potatoes using the overexpression of genes [88-89]. thereupon improvement, potatoes could compete with the water-soluble vitamin amounts in fresh produce not available to some communities, like grapefruit and cherry tomatoes.

 

MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION OF CHRONIC DISEASES WITH VITAMIN C:

Though proper antioxidant intake can improve our diets and health, there’s also evidence to suggest successful clinical applications in disease prevention and management. There are many studies that demonstrate the disease management benefits of water-soluble vitamins on certain diseases, with some shown in table 4. One study has shown that ascorbic acid can help treat diseases that current medicines cannot, like the herpes virus (EBV). After high dose (7.5- 50 g) IV antioxidant treatments, subjects with EBV showed a 40% decrease in early antibody (EA) immune serum globulin (IgG) levels and a positive effect on disease duration (table 4) [90]. in an exceedingly review on the effect of antioxidants on non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), human trials have shown that individuals afflicted with those diseases tend to own low antioxidant plasma concentrations and/or a coffee dietary intake of vitamin C [91]. This review also highlighted that treating those diseases with water-soluble vitamins (300-1000 mg daily) can facilitate improvement with disease symptoms (i.e. steatosis) [91]. one among those review studies by Kawanaka et.al., (2013) is highlighted in table 4 [92]. Another major health issue is hypertension, and ascorbic acid has been shown to lower force per unit area. After an initial vitamin C dose of two g, and subsequent daily doses of 500 mg for one month, the participants’ mean pressure dropped 9.1%, providing evidence that long-term ascorbic acid treatment can reduce pressure levels in patients with hypertension (table 4) [93]. the utilization of ascorbic acid may aid patients who are undergoing treatment. One study on carcinoma patients undergoing chemotherapy/radiotherapy showed that a once-weekly IV dose of seven.5 g ascorbic acid decreased their overall side effects (such as nausea, loss of appetite, and fatigue).

                                     In addition to disease management, vitamin C is additionally an honest indicator of certain diseases. Low plasma levels of the water-soluble vitamins are related to oxidative stress, an honest marker for sure diseases. As mentioned earlier, the water-soluble vitamin helps to scale back oxidative stress within the body, like malondialdehyde (MDA), which ends up in an inverse correlation. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can have a 55.3% higher level of MDA and a 69.4% lower level of antioxidant than healthy controls [96]. Vitamin C plasma levels have also an inverse correlation with the incidence of cardiovascular disease, with every 20 ?mol/L increase in plasma yielding a 17% decrease in risk for failure [99].

 There are many ways within which antioxidants may be used as a preventative measure, instead of a treatment. Though most research focuses on oral or IV routes, there’s evidence to suggest the effectiveness of topical applications further. an answer containing 10% l-ascorbic acid in a very hydro glycolic base (water, butylene glycol, di propanediol, and ethanol), 0.5% ferulic acid, and a pair of phloretin has been shown to decrease the incidence of sunburned cells by ~90.2%, and DNA damage (thymine dimers) by ~92.7% [100]. Topical vitamin C solutions can have protective effects against UV radiation, may act as potential prevention against certain skin cancers. Preventative effects have also been seen in diabetes, and individuals Diagnosed there upon disease are in danger of several complications. one in every one of those complications involves high glucose concentrations, which activate the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) that may result in pericyte apoptosis [101]. in an exceedingly cell-culture study, acerbate loading of 100 ?M was shown to completely prevent apoptosis because of RAGE activation, presenting the importance for diabetes patients to ingest enough water-soluble vitamins to keep up plasma concentrations of 50–100 ?M [101]. Outside of the lab, evaluations of ascorbic acid consumption and its preventative effects on certain populations have shown some promising results. Through the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, women were shown to possess a 13% lower prevalence of clinical gallbladder disease with each 27 μmol/L increase in their serum antioxidant level [102]. In an 11-year cohort study on the association of vitamin supplementation and upper gastrointestinal cancers, it absolutely was shown that multivitamin use failed to help to lower risk, but specific vitamin C supplementation revealed a 21% lower risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) [103]. Higher plasma levels of ascorbic acid have also been linked with a decrease in overall mortality, the best preventative measure. in an exceedingly prospective population study, it had been found that “a 20 μmol/L increase in plasma vitamin C was related to a couple of 20% decline in death because of all-cause, disorder, and ischaemic heart disease” [104].

CONCLUSIONS:

Vitamin C could be a powerful functional food ingredient with numerous health applications. Proper intake over a lifetime helps maintain our current health and prevents future ailments. A minimum of 10 mg daily will prevent clinical deficiency and scurvy, although current research suggests 90-500 mg daily for optimal benefits. Much higher doses (many beyond the two g UL) are employed in the clinical setting, with the best plasma levels achieved through IV injection. Proper doses for treatment are extremely variable and rely upon the disease being treated. The risks of high-dose antioxidant supplementation are almost negligible compared to some current treatments. With regard to disease management, continued clinical and epidemiological research will help to further understand and make sure the positive health effects of the water-soluble vitamins within the prevention and treatment of various conditions. In terms of the overall public, studies on the long-term effects of over-the-counter oral supplementation should be focused on, thanks to increasing awareness of ascorbic acid benefits. Future studies should also specialize in the way to safely and effectively implement water-soluble vitamins into the diets of populations in danger of deficiency.

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATION

2,2?-azinobis (3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6) sulphonic acid, ABTS; chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, CAT; chronic viral hepatitis virus, CHC; chronic uropathy, CKD; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD; coronary blood velocity, CBV; dehydroascorbic acid, DHA; early antibody, EA; EBV, EBV; estimated average requirement, EAR; Food and Agricultural Organization of the international organisation, FAO; food and nutrition board, FNB; gastric noncardiac adenocarcinoma, GNCA; glucose transporter, GLUT; gulonolactone oxidase, GLO; immune globulin, IgG; institute of drugs, IOM; intravenous, IV; left ventricular, LV; lipoprotein, LDL; maintenance haemodialysis, MHD; malondialdehyde, MDA; malonyldialdehyde, MDA; non-alcoholic liver disease disease, NAFLD; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH; reactive oxygen species, ROS; receptor for advanced glycation end products, RAGE; recommended dietary allowances, RDA; sodium-dependent antioxidant transporter, SVCT; SOD, SOD; thiobarbituric acid reactive species, TBARS.

 

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Hemavathia, Upadhyayaa CP, Younga KE, Akulaa N, Kimb HS, Heungb JJ, Ohc OM, Aswathd CR, Chuna SC, Kima DH, Parka SW: Over-expression of strawberry d- galacturonic acid reductase in potato leads to accumulation of vitamin C with enhanced abiotic stress tolerance. Plant Science 2009, 177(6):659-667.

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/radiotherapy and aftercare: results of a retrospective, multicentre, epidemiological cohort study in Germany. In Vivo 2011, 25(6):983-990.

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Takahashi N, Morimoto S, Okigaki M, Seo M, Someya K, Morita T, Matsubara H, Sugiura T, Iwasaka T: Decreased plasma level of vitamin C in chronic kidney disease: comparison between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011, 26(4):1252-1257.

Pfister R, Sharp SJ, Luben R, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT: Plasma vitamin C predicts incident heart failure in men and women in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk prospective study. Am Heart J 2011, 162(2):246-253.

Oresajo C, Stephens T, Hino PD, Law RM, Yatskayer M, Foltis P, Pillai S, Pinnell SR: Protective effects of a topical antioxidant mixture containing vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin against ultraviolet-induced photodamage in human skin. J Cosmet Dermatol 2008, 7(4):290-297.

May JM, Jayagopal A, Qu ZC, Parker WH: Ascorbic acid prevents high glucose-induced apoptosis in human brain pericytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2014, 452(1):112- 117.

Simon JA, Hudes ES: Serum ascorbic acid and gallbladder disease prevalence among US adults: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Arch Intern Med 2000, 160(7):931-936.

Dawsey SP, Hollenbeck A, Schatzkin A, Abnet CC, Lee JE: A prospective study of vitamin and mineral supplement use and the risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers. PLoS One 2014, 9(2):e88774.

Khaw K-T, Bingham S, Welch A, Luben R, Wareham N, Oakes S, Day N: Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in EPIC-Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population study. The Lancet (British edition) 2001, 357(9257):657-663.

Bulley S, Wright M, Rommens C, Yan H, Rassam M, Lin-Wang K, Andre C, Brewster D, Karunairetnam S, Allan AC, Laing WA: Enhancing ascorbate in fruits and tubers through over-expression of the L-galactose pathway gene GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase. Plant Biotechnol J 2012, 10(4):390-397.

Hemavathia, Upadhyayaa CP, Younga KE, Akulaa N, Kimb HS, Heungb JJ, Ohc OM, Aswathd CR, Chuna SC, Kima DH, Parka SW: Over-expression of strawberry d- galacturonic acid reductase in potato leads to accumulation of vitamin C with enhanced abiotic stress tolerance. Plant Science 2009, 177(6):659-667.

Mikirova NA, Hunninghake R: Effect of high dose vitamin C on Epstein-Barr viral infection. Med Sci Monit 2014, 20:725-732.

Ipsen DH, Tveden-Nyborg P, Lykkesfeldt J: Does vitamin C deficiency promote fatty liver disease development? Nutrients 2014, 6:5473-5499.

Kawanaka M, Nishino K, Nakamura J, Suehiro M, Goto D, Urata N, Oka T, Kawamoto H, Nakamura H, Yodoi J, Hino K, Yamada G: Treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with vitamins E and C: a pilot study. Hepat Med 2013, 5:11-16.

Duffy SJ, Gokce N, Holbrook M, Huang A, Frei B, Keaney Jr JF, Vita JA: Treatment of hypertension with ascorbic acid. The Lancet (North American Edition) 1999, 354(9195):2048-2049.

Vollbracht C, Schneider B, Leendert V, Weiss G, Auerbach L, Beuth J: Intravenous vitamin C administration improves quality of life in breast cancer patients during chemo-

/radiotherapy and aftercare: results of a retrospective, multicentre, epidemiological cohort study in Germany. In Vivo 2011, 25(6):983-990.

 

Gao Z, Spilk S, Momen A, Muller MD, Leuenberger UA, Sinoway L: Vitamin C prevents hyperoxia-mediated coronary vasoconstriction and impairment of myocardial function in healthy subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol 2012, 112(2):483-492.

Cristóvão C, Cristóvão L, Nogueira F, Bicho M: Evaluation of the oxidant and antioxidant balance in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Rev Port Pneumol 2013, 19(2):70-75.

El-Kannishy G, Arafa M, Abdelaal I, Elarman M, El-Mahdy R: Persistent oxidative stress in patients with chronic active hepatitis-C infection after antiviral therapy failure. Saudi J Gastroenterol 2012, 18(6):375-379.

Takahashi N, Morimoto S, Okigaki M, Seo M, Someya K, Morita T, Matsubara H, Sugiura T, Iwasaka T: Decreased plasma level of vitamin C in chronic kidney disease: comparison between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011, 26(4):1252-1257.

Pfister R, Sharp SJ, Luben R, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT: Plasma vitamin C predicts incident heart failure in men and women in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk prospective study. Am Heart J 2011, 162(2):246-253.

Oresajo C, Stephens T, Hino PD, Law RM, Yatskayer M, Foltis P, Pillai S, Pinnell SR: Protective effects of a topical antioxidant mixture containing vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin against ultraviolet-induced photodamage in human skin. J Cosmet Dermatol 2008, 7(4):290-297.

May JM, Jayagopal A, Qu ZC, Parker WH: Ascorbic acid prevents high glucose-induced apoptosis in human brain pericytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2014, 452(1):112- 117.

Simon JA, Hudes ES: Serum ascorbic acid and gallbladder disease prevalence among US adults: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Arch Intern Med 2000, 160(7):931-936.

Dawsey SP, Hollenbeck A, Schatzkin A, Abnet CC, Lee JE: A prospective study of vitamin and mineral supplement use and the risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers. PLoS One 2014, 9(2):e88774.

Khaw K-T, Bingham S, Welch A, Luben R, Wareham N, Oakes S, Day N: Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in EPIC-Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population study. The Lancet (British edition) 2001, 357(9257):657-663.

Callen Pacier; Danik M Martirosyan; Vitamin C: optimal dosages, supplementation and use in disease prevention; Article in Functional Foods in Health and Disease · July 2015

 

AUTHOR AFFILIATION

ANIRA MOHIUDDIN

MS Graduate, Department of Criminology and Police Science, Mawlana Bhashani     Science and Technology      University, Tangail

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