ADDRESSING THE POLICE PREJUDICE IN BANGLADESH: A SECONDARY ANALYSIS

VOL.04 Issue 05

ANIRA MOHIUDDIN

MS Graduate, Department of Criminology and Police Science, Mawlana Bhashani, Science and Technology University, Tangail.

Abstract:

 Police prejudice is widespread in many countries, but relatively new in Bangladesh. It means favour to a certain group while giving unfair treatment to other groups. Thus, the study revealed the present picture of prejudice, process and factors, some parameters such as victim and area of prejudice, and the steps to fight against prejudice. Using secondary literature for analysis this study has found that the main victims are marginalized, poor and indigenous people who faced prejudice while lodging cases or during the investigation. The culture of impunity and politics had a great effect on the influence of prejudice. Police prejudice often sheds as a violation of human rights. It also added public perception about police prejudice and suggestions. This study finally recommends police use new strategies to reduce prejudice and offers suggestions for future research that sheds in-depth light on the link between prejudices among police officers.

Keywords: Police Prejudice, Police culture, Process of Prejudice, Bangladesh Police, Victims, World context.

Introduction and Background of the Study

The main law enforcement agency of any country is the Police Force. They are given the responsibility to ensure equality and justice for all citizens. The police force benefits from political patronage and a culture of impunity (NIS, 2014). A culture of a country can deeply harm to withdraw themselves from the mission and vision they aim at. Not every police officers suffer from the culture of impunity but many police departments have a problem with prejudice- it’s a common assumption supported by much empirical research. The perception of biased policing and mistrust of police officers has been prevalent in many black and Latino communities in the United States (Sheryl, 2015 in Buckley). Not only the U.S.A has experienced prejudice of police but it is also in the United Kingdom, many countries in Europe, and most of the third world countries. Bangladesh is not out of those. As still, this country is developing; there are so many lacking of police and general culture of Bangladesh that leads to prejudice. Crime and violence have been and continue to be among the major social, economic, and political issues facing Bangladesh. Every year large amounts of crime are reported in our country, so here the importance of law enforcement agencies to deal with those problems. In general conditions, people faced discrimination and biases among law enforcement agencies while lodging reports, and some innocent accused lead to meet the law for prejudice among police. This context was the root of this study. For conducting good research, it needs a strong background. At present, there is a little study which tells the prejudice among police in our country. This study has compared work related to prejudice in other countries for getting a strong base on this study.The state of police prejudice in other countries describe as racism is endemic in white police culture is self-evident, as is the fact that this infects how members of the black, minority, and ethnic groups are treated by police officers, both within and outside the police service. Bangladesh police prejudice is mainly based on the race-ethnicity of people. In the United States studies show that police are more likely to pull over and frisk blacks or latinos than whites eighty percent (80% ) of the stops made were blacks and Latinos, and 85%, compared to a mere 8% of white people stopped, in New York City (Savali, 2012). In stop and search minority group are mostly stopped as data have shown, black people and those of mixed origin were 11x more likely to be stopped than white people, whether on foot or in cars, they experience multiple stops in a year (British home office, 2004:14, Black and Black, 1980). In parliament assembly by European Union, states Austria, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Portugal, Spain, Norway, Sweden, Russia, and United Kingdom agreed their presence of police prejudice of race for immigrants and refugees and take future steps to prevent this (Tackling racism in Police, 2014).
Some studies helped to link prejudicial activities existent in Bangladesh. Starting from the definition of prejudices varies from one to other scholars as, prejudice generally defines as, unreasonable feelings, opinions, or attitudes, especially of a hostile nature, regarding an ethnic, racial, social, or religious group, and when these characteristics shown by police officers in their line of duty, it is known as police prejudice. Prejudice can be explained as a prejudgment of anyone about any group. Many of the studies looking at police characteristics are not explicitly targeted racial prejudice as a research variable. Rather, researchers have often treated the “police personality” as a unified construct and have assumed racism based on finding evidence of some other authoritarian-like attribute. The dominant view in the literature is that the typical police officer comes to possess a set of authoritarian traits, including racial prejudice, through a process of occupational socialization. (Brogden, Jefferson, & Walklate, 1988; Brown & Willis, 1985; Carlson & Sutton, 1975; Niederhoffer, 1967; Bayley & Mendelsohn, 1969; Fielding, 1988; Skolnick and Gray, 1975).
The huge lacking of literature in Bangladesh, some study shows that minor and marginalized people are mostly the victim of prejudice in Bangladesh. But generally from some case studies, it’s been found that the powerful leaders and riches get priorities in police officers, because of their social and economic insecurity and fear to lose their life or job. A study by World Bank its shown that slum areas and tribal people often receive injustice and ill-treatment from police in Bangladesh. Religion also plays a vital role mostly Hindus and Buddhists are fear to lodge a case to the police. The police are not seen as friends or partners with the community (Islam & Ali, 2008). It is alleged that the police will often harass and intimidate ordinary, law-abiding citizens (Narayan et. al., 2000; Peace and Akas, 2009).
To recover this sate some researcher, suggest such as, Hall et al. (2015), discrimination is most likely where there are no clear guidelines or criteria for decision-making, where decisions depend on subjective judgments rather than (or in addition to) objective criteria, rather than the requirements of service delivery (FitzGerald and Hale, 1997). Where one study recommended to improving training accomplishes both practical and academic knowledge, while another study emphasis on the educational background of police officers (Wortley and Home, 1995; Bowling and Phillips, 2010). From this study point of view, every country’s prejudice pattern of police is different in many contexts, according to base on the causation; prevention of this must be taken. For Bangladesh, their low literature to show that police prejudice causes.

Research Questions and Objectives

Prejudice among police is one of the most underexplored areas of scientific investigation in Bangladesh. Various types of crime increasing day by day in Bangladesh and that affects police work structure and environment. Most of the people of our country have a question about the prejudice of the police force. They pose negative thinking about this system. In order to determine the condition of prejudice in law enforcement agencies, we have to quire about the prejudice existing in the police force. The research question for this research was following:                                                                                                     
Which are the main factors that influence police prejudice?
Is cultural setting or group socialization causes prejudice among them?
The general objective of the study was to ascertain the overall condition of police prejudice in our country.

In specific term the following objectives to achieve:

To understand the current state of prejudice in the Bangladesh police force.
To find out the victims of police prejudice.
A comparison of police prejudice with world context.
To find out the possible ways to fight police prejudice.

Scope and Limitations

The sole purpose of this study is to inform action. There are relatively few published studies about police prejudice in Bangladesh. Well-conducted research will help to develop its sector as make more concerned government about the problems, help to ensure public awareness about how police force needs to work to ensure equality, police authority will be strict maintain their duties according to the law as well as with humanity and enforce law correctly and help to implicate new law. This research contains some limitations as the unavailability of topic-related books, this study depends on secondary data so generalization is tough.

Methodology of the Study

This study based on secondary data so it focused on both qualitative and qualitative studies related to police prejudice. In nature of the study is based on deductive. Some literature base on the quality of information others some quantitative data to analyze. Secondary data such as journals, books, online sources, daily newspapers, and articles were used. Some well-known research that describes the extension of police prejudice has been selected as my quantitative and qualitative data sources. In form of qualitative data, this study has analyzed 12 case studies collected from various published sources that indicate the prejudicial behavior of police among certain groups. It also used different numerical data from some previous studies that reveal the police prejudice among some countries. This full concern about its use of trusted data to make research creditable and reliable. The study fully followed all the ethical considerations and aware of the plagiarisms and used citations and references when needed.

Findings of the Study

A study output is the reflection of its object and literature review. This study had tried to find out the police prejudice in Bangladesh and compare this with other countries.

Process and factors of Police Prejudice

In a study related to police prejudice in Australia “Police Prejudice as a Function of Training and Out-group Contact”, Richard K. Wortley and Ross J. Homel said that in training, officers learned prejudice. Recent statistics published by the Stolen Lives Project estimate that the number of cases in the United States relating to police brutality has reacheThe Current State of Prejudice in the Bangladesh Police Forced thousands, but these statistics come with a disclaimer many, if not most, of these instances, are never reported due to fear of reprisal. In Bangladesh, the state is undiscovered, as leaking of studies. Studies mainly highlight police always favor the riches and powerful over the marginalized. The tribal groups of Bangladesh stopped filing cases (Voice of the poor; can anyone hear us? P. 252). There are also many studies related to law enforcement agencies’ prejudice which turn interested in this subject.
                                           Police officers involved in prejudicial acts according to Gatto et al. (2012) who used two phenomena as selection and group socialization to find out which police officers are mainly prejudiced. By experiment, they find out that fresh recruit shows less prejudice against Arabs, poor and gypsies than the control group, but after one year they started to show prejudice. Moreover, a study in Australia south wales briefly shows that Prejudice is most likely to develop when intergroup contact is characterized by conflict and/or the perception of undesirable behaviour among out-group members (Wortley and Home, 1995). As said police prejudice as a function of training, they emphasize on greater attention needs to be given to bridging the gap between the academy and the street. Johnson (1943) author of the book “Patterns of Segregation,” found that the police of the south generally come from the lower middle class in whom racial attitudes are firmly fixed because of their low level of education and social and economic insecurity. To support it a Report on Metropolitan Police Service handling of complaints alleging race discrimination (July 2013) said that, the rank of officer most frequently complained about was police constable (330 allegations), with police sergeants (32 allegations) the next. The rank of the officer was not known in 20% (103) of cases over 511 complaints.Certain factors work to victimized people of police prejudice, race plays a key role in police misconduct. Discrimination is generally taken to refer to the tendency toward the harsher treatment of BME people by White people, this oversimplifies police behavior. Black argues, police are as likely to disregard the complaints of BME people (Graef, 1989; Black and Black, 1980; Cain, 2015) Many minority groups are likely to be victims of unfair police treatment. As said race one of the factors of prejudice, studies show that in the U.S.A blacks are most likely to victims of police prejudice as well some unarmed innocent killing of blacks. Otherhand in Europe mainly in England, one study revealed that immigrants from other countries such as Asians are on the list of police prejudice. The ethnicity of complainants was not recorded in 174 allegations. Where data was recorded the three largest categories were “Black” (171) followed by “White” (80), and “Asian” (78).  Sub-continent in India and Pakistan (Bangladeshi Muslims in Rahimabad, Karachi) mostly the minorities such as Muslims or other varieties classes of people of different states get the unfair treatment of police for their minority. In India, Pakistan and South Africa evidence has been shown that police are not interested to take rape case.

Some scholars identified causes of prejudice as, an ideological belief that favors addressing perceived danger in the social realm through group control, stability, and cohesion. Learning by group and power indicates prejudice among them. (Gatto et al., 2012). Also, Research evidence over the past three decades has found that specific stereotypes are commonly used by police officers to categorized people based on their ethnic origin. Whitfield’s (2006) observation reflects the apparent reality of law enforcement assumptions about the connection between race and criminality, while it’s mostly error, but their social environment and some recent incidents such as (for example 9/11, 7/7) make them believe of mixed origins and blacks are prone to crime. The main difficulty with racial prejudice is that we have too many preconceived opinions concerning it we didn’t realize the actual. In another study done in Australia, the field experience would lead to a general increase in prejudice. When they met with the real world of crime, their thinking couldn’t match up with academic readings, a load of work, frustration, depression, and real experiences turn them to become prejudicial to their client and works (Wortley and Home, 1995). Even, Political influences; a study found that 42.5% and causes police to fail in investigation near 45% (Chisty, 2016).

The overall picture shows that black respondents are somewhat less satisfied with police activity where Asians are mixed and they believe that police favor some people and unjust, rude, unfriendly to them than the whites (Spencer and Hough, 2000; Sims and Myhill, 2001; Skogan, 1994; Clancy et al., 2001; Chigwada-Bailey, 2003; Mayhew et al., 1993). British Crime Survey (BCS) has confirmed that Asian 23%, black 38%, and White 19% could recall being ‘really annoyed’ by the behavior of a police officer in the last five years. Victims from minority ethnic communities are less satisfied with the police response than white victims (Mayhew et al., 1993).  Clancy et al. (2001) found that 33 % black, 43 % of Indian, 27 % of Pakistani and Bangladeshi, and 47% of white individuals felt they were satisfied by their experience with the police in the 16–29 age group. Other-hand a survey in France finds out the 74% trusted in police while 40% of qualified police are racist. In CBS News poll found that when 58 percent of blacks thought race relations were bad, but just 35 percent of whites agreed. In Bangladesh, a study revealed that police show unfair treatment to certain group agreed by 60% of students (Khandakar and Lambert, 2013; Tackling racism in Police, 2014; Sussman, 2015; Bowling and Phillips, 2010).

In Bangladesh, marginalized people such as poor and tribal people are in fear of lodging file. Additionally, religion plays a very important role in police prejudice such as Hindu (Representing 8.5% of our population), Muslim (Biharis), and Christian are also the victim of police prejudice. An NGO study reveals that at first time reports of area base minor Hindu cases were not registered. This clearly presents that powerless and marginalized people are the victim of unjustified behavior of police for their discriminatory thinking (Gupta, 2005; Jefferson and Walker, 1993).

The Current State of Prejudice in the Bangladesh Police Force

To understand the real situation of Bangladesh the following case study helped to find out police prejudice. The cases were collected from different published papers, online documents, and newspapers.

Case study 1

The International Chittagong Hill Tracts Commission, in their investigation, said they constantly in fear, law and order are in a pathetic situation. Apart from that, several fake cases were filed against tribal people as an example, “In an NGO study 2014, Khagrachari, a 16-year old boy, who just passed SSC, could not enroll himself in any college as he has been detained under a false case. He has even been denied bail. This cannot happen in a civilized country,” he said. Hill people were harassed by different law enforcement agencies even if they go outside at night to call of nature (Odhikar, 2014).

Case Study 2

On October 22, 2009, local Muslims assaulted a Catholic family from the Dhaka diocese, which is part of the St. Lawrence Catholic Church. Multiple people began shooting on the Catholic family’s home. The family then lodged a lawsuit with the nearby police station with the help of even the US state department and an NGO and. But in reality, police were less favorable unless the U.S. state department came to the rescue (The Daily Star, 2009).

Case Study 3

Purnima Rani, the daughter of Chitra Para-Dulal Joypurhat’s Roy, went missing in 2009 after being allegedly expected to be married to a Hindu boy. The Muslim perpetrator (Nayan and Sujon) is related to a very powerful Juba League leader in Joypurhat. Despite desperate negotiations with the influential Awami League officials, Purnima Rani was never found. In addition, on-duty cops sometimes failed to file charges against the suspects. Despite the fact that the lawsuit was only filed after much time, the suspects continued threatening the victim’s family on a regular basis. As a consequence, there is a feeling of vulnerability within Hindu groups (Rights of the Minorities: The Case of Bangladesh, n.d).

Case Study 4

On September 2, 2009, more than 50 people, including the member-secretary of the National Committee to Protect Oil, Gas, Mineral Resources, Power and Ports, when police charged at marchers going to Petro Bangla headquarters in the capital in protest of the government’s decision to allocate three offshore blocks to foreign oil firms, Prof. Anu Muhammad was wounded. But, one bereaved Hindu family has been prevented from lodging a first information report at the Rangunia police station, due to continuous threats from the killers. As a result of police efforts to hide the truth about the crime, the suspects have achieved impunity (Rights of the Minorities: The Case of Bangladesh, n.d).

Case Study 5

3rd May 2002, at night, in Cumilla district of Bangladesh Brajendra Bhowmick, a Hindu villager of Haludia situated under Mujaffargunge Union was attacked by armed right-wing Muslim fundamentalists. Subhash Chandra Bhowmick’s, Nakul Chandra Bhowmick’s, and Bimalendu Bhowmick’s homes have all been set on fire. The local police station is still indifferent regarding the incident and didn’t file the case (Rights of the Minorities: The Case of Bangladesh, n.d).

Case Study 6

A Hindu housewife was raped by a reactionary Muslim fanatic called Shafiqul Islam on May 7, 2002, in the Shathkhira sub-district of the Sreerampur village. A case has been filed but no adequate action has been taken by the police against the accused because of power structure influence act favor to accused (Rights of the Minorities: The Case of Bangladesh, n.d).

Case study 7

fraudulent conversions with the aim to deceive minority girls are taking place, as in the case of Shika Debnath, daughter of Mina Debnath of the same subdistrict’s Shaljune village. After entrapment and false personification, there are also forced conversions. Such events claimed the lives of Nabami Sarkar, the daughter of Akhil Sarkar of Aimar Rasulpur village, and Krishna Rani and Prativa Rani of Govindapur. Despite the fact that a complaint has been filed with the police, they do not respond to this specific minority issue (Source book: Pain by Akash, 2011).

Case Study 8

Maching Khai Marma, 18, was raped and then murdered with a brick on May 8, 2009, in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. No steps were taken by the copes about the case (Human Rights Watch, 2015).

 Case Study 9

According to the human rights watch “Abuse Against person at high risk” 2003, a eunuch Mohammad H. in which he was arrested, was gang rape by for people and had fled to the scene naked. They ask do not you tell anyone, he replied that time that “he expects only prejudice and indifferences from the police. If I go police station they will say, you are eunuch (hijra), then who are you to complain? (Human Rights Watch, 2015).

Case study 10

In October 2002 a sex worker Rafiq F. was arrest with her client in Mymensingh near the riverbank. The client paid and go. But the police want money from her, as she refused they beaten her and keep her in custody. She said that’s a normal story of their life. Police never equally treat them as others (Human Rights Watch, 2015).

Case Study 11

Rehman M. 28 years old, in November 2002, a mastan demanded money in plain view of the police officer. As he refused he stabbed him with a knife. He approaches the nearby police officer they said they cannot do anything until you file a case. I was afraid, their refusal to act frighten me and I could see the power of mastan and I didn’t go to file a complaint (Human Rights Watch, 2015).

Case study 12

In 2003, Mathur M. wants to complain a register against police, after police beating him with a stick badly that he was hospitalized for one and half month. He said the police listen to him but did not act. He also went for a complaint to beat other residents of the village for the same beating, but it id not work, he said police neglect us, so what will the villager do? (Human Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2005).

Every case unique on its ground with one common thing as the repression of the powerless and minor people. Those 12 cases also help to come to a decision that police like to favour the powerful persons while lodging any case. It indicates the prejudice among the police force toward the minority. The real cause of their prejudice is not discovering yet, as there is no work related to police prejudice. One study claimed that it is the privileges of political party power, which deeply influences prejudice. They are afraid to do their duty properly in fear of the power of some political leaders. This fear had created a culture of prejudice against marginalized people.

Victims of Police Prejudice

Those cases easily answer who is the victim of police prejudice in Bangladesh. The marginalized and powerless people are the victims of unjust treatment of polices. Most studies have shown that Hindu religions (8.5% of overall Bangladeshi population) people combine with Christian, tribal, minor class such as eunuch (hijra) as powerless as well people living in slum area are porn to be the victim of most of the unfair act of police. But here within some cases, it is found that Hindu minors are mostly affected by prejudice to lives far from the city. It also disclosed that gender is a big factor of prejudice as most male is the victim of prejudice as they first come to the contact of law enforcement agencies. Other hand, out of social myths such as third gender eunuch and professions which are not socially acceptable are the main victim of prejudice. This out of society people makes a picture of differences in police mind (Human Rights Watch, 2003).
Those cases further lead to know, minors (Hindu), are mostly deprived of property-related crime while women are the victim of sexual offenses. They are prejudice while lodging a case against powerful persons or in the time of the investigation. When any officer joins the police force, political influence is a great factor that influences this type of unfair attitude among them. The fear of losing or transfer to the rural area made them be a prejudice among general law-abiding people. The labeling theory approach label poor and who goes against social norms in the eyes of the police, that leads to their victimization.

Places and Years of the Most Occurred Prejudicial Activities

It’s been related that as the political influence increases the higher prejudice shown by our police department. Recent data shows that the activity increases at the time 2005, BNP-Jamat Government, where Muslim fundamentalism has given importance and experience unpredictable period of instability. In 2006 during logi-boitha a total of 310, 25 from the hill tracts people were killed, 8997 of 71 were injured, 1216 of 35 were arrested, and 93 of 81 were kidnapped in connection to human rights violation related to politics. Additionally, in the time of 2009 and 2012-2013 cause of political instability, this attitude increased so as in the time of last 2018. Although levels of violence declined significantly, the government’s human rights record remained a matter of serious concern political instability often caused by human rights violations. Today still our society these human rights of minors by police exist, but not treat as police prejudice. In the name of human rights violation, the prejudiced attitude of police most of the time sheds.
Everywhere in Bangladesh people from different religions and cast lives. Human Right Watch (2003) found that the areas where the majority of minor and indigenous people live are places for prejudice. They said that from powerful to the general public deprive them to give their rights and them constantly living in fear about when they will be attacked by anyone else. In those areas, most police officers also keep silent about these unjust and unable to provide the right assistant, whether in need of those powerful people police always present. This may be indicating many causes behind those actions by police, but this study marks it as the prejudice of police. Area mark by Human Right Watch as, Rangpur, Dinajpur, Mymensingh, Sylhet, Rajshahi Chittagong Hills track including Rangamati, Khagrachori and Bandarban are those places where minor was the victim of inhuman behavior (Gupta, 2005). Other hand the slum area as Voice of the Poor (2013), indicate that poor people also the victim of police prejudice from lodging case to all other procedures.

Comparison of Bangladeshi Police Prejudice within the World Context

There are many studies done worldwide about police prejudice among different countries. In those studies, data reveals that race plays a key role in prejudice while in Bangladesh this study found that power and minority matters. The race is the key to the victimization of innocent as, Donald Mac’writes in The Wall Street Journal  (2009)  statistics from the Bureau of Justice Statistics reveal that blacks were charged with 62 percent of robberies, 57 percent of murders, and 45 percent of assaults in the 75 biggest counties in the country. According to FBI data, it is found that 40 percent of police members are killed by the black. According to Donald, the police officer is 18.5 times more likely to be killed by a black than a cop killing an unarmed black person. Those are general uses of labeling theory to black or other race personality to neutralize that self from prejudice allegation. In 2020 the “black life matters” a true reflection of prejudicial attitudes (BMJ, 2020).
Federal survey finds that blacks are 3x more treated with force than whites, 53 percent of people treated with force. In 2007, statistics show that in one lakh 773 black are stops where the total number of the whites is 4618. It means with the population respect every 4 out of 5 black are stopped and searched. Not only black the Asian immigrant also stopped and searched. The unarmed killing of black in 2014 was 105 and 2015 102, where 83 were innocent and became the victim of prejudice. The U.S.A police shoot 3x more unarmed black people than white (BMJ, 2020).Those are the study of USA, in Europe, it also revealed the brutal truth against police racism. Here asians and blacks are the victims of police prejudice and treat them as a suspect. Asian are 11x searched and stopped where whites faced 15 stops out of 1000, blacks 90 and 27 were Asian. Brutal death also indicates some racism in police as the figures for 2002-03 indicated a significant increase from 7 in 2001-02 to 23 in 2002-03 in death in custody. Even more the out of 23 deaths, 11 were black and 7 were asian (Home Office, 2004). From the Home Office analysis of the increase of minority ethnic deaths, suggested that racism has a relationship witj those deaths. This report also stated that, the discrimination on ground of race or ethnicity has not addressed by the police service (Home Office, 2004).
Those are the data of police prejudicial attitude in USA and UK, in Bangladesh, there is no specific data but public perception toward police prejudice helps me to present a numerical data about Bangladeshi police. In a study Perceptions of the Police in Two Nations: An Exploratory Study of Policing Views among Bangladeshi and U.S. College Students (2013) analysis of survey data from 742 college students,even worse, only 21% of Bangladeshi and 18% of the U.S.A participants thought that the police generally treated everyone the same. That is, both groups have the same proportion of participants who were uncertain about this area of police performance (18%), and importantly, both were equally dissatisfied about police treatment of different people in the community (60%) for the Bangladesh participants and 64% for the U.S. participants). This 60% said about the existence of police prejudice in Bangladesh where 64% of Americans said about it. In France, it is revealed by the public that 40% of the police witnessed prejudice where the rate for England was lower down in 2014 as, 30% (Taylor and Muir, 2014). The graphical representation of comparing those three studies here as:

Source: (Khandakar & Lambert, 2013; Taylor and Muir, 2014; Tacking Racism in Police, 2014)

Lastly, In Bangladesh police prejudice pattern is not as same as USA and Uk. The police mainly show their unjust behavior toward powerless and minor while anyone files a case or in investigation time. In any criminal activity, they always prefer the so-called respected and powerful citizens of our country, the culture made them think so. The learning process is like criminality learned said, Sutherland.

Possible Ways to Fight Police Prejudice

As aforementioned, police-community relations in Bangladesh are largely strained due to rising crime rates and heightened public fear of crime, police lack of training and professionalism, police unfairness toward people without power, and police harassment and corruption (Das & Palmiotto, 2006; D’Costa, 2012; Islam & Ali, 2008; Khondaker & Lambert, 2009; Uddin, 2009). In a study, Bangladesh students believed that the community should have input on how the police operate (82%) there should be greater control of the police by community citizens (68%), the police should be accountable for their actions (92%), excessive police scrutiny is necessary to fight crime (83%). Otherwise, the literature review suggests that two main factors as group socialization (Gatton et. al., 2012) and training can be turning factors to fight against the prejudiced culture among them (Wortley and Home, 1995). Johnson (1943) suggests the level of education also be a factor to give the solution of police prejudice.
In Bangladesh’s perspective, the police sub-culture current situation must be replaced by a process of group socialization process which will council officers not to do any discriminate against the poor and minors and help them to properly do their duties and responsibility toward the public and country. Recruitment and training strategies must be updated. Stop following the century-old traditional system and must need to change soon to reduce prejudice among officers. Education can enlighten anything. Most of the police works are done by the constable who has a lower requirement of educational background (S.S.C), which possibly made them thinking traditional among minors. Training strategies must be updated and while they are on service on special training facilities must be provided to them. Training facilities are inadequate to the lower level of police personnel; this must need to be increased to spread knowledge among them. Political influences another main cause also needs to be erased to achieve the best result. The government and higher authorities of the police department must need to be conscious of the fact of prejudice and its relation with prejudice.

Conclusions and Recommendations

It’s not empirically proven the practice of prejudice in Bangladesh but after all thediscussionit’s clear that there is the existence of prejudgment attitude among polices. Often those attitudes were hushed by the violation of human rights. Human rights violation is another category of crime, it can’t compare to prejudice. When the protector becomes a sinner then it is the high time we rethink them. Police always aim to combat crime not to be subjugated in ownself.As it’s a secondary study and it prefers to conduct a primary database study that will reveal the actual situation related to prejudice in Bangladesh.

Prejudice although not a crime but a preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or experience. As previously stated, police prejudice is an unjustified (generally negative) stance toward a person focused purely on the individual’s social group membership. Sometimes police officers were not aware of their attitude of prejudice in Bangladesh. Proper steps can be taken to aware those police that that is not only a human right violation rather than a reflection of their biased thinking to a certain class of the group.  From using extensive force to not to lodge some certain group is counted as prejudice.
Many countries have been concern about this and started to take adequate steps to reduce it step by step. European Union counties such as Germany, France, United Kingdom, Spain, Portugal, Russia, and Greece follow some rules of prevention and promotion of trust in police. The United States of America also been conscious of the fact and tried to eliminate it by using many strategies, some strategies help to reduce the racist biases among police officers. As prejudice gain a global dimension in recent years our policymakers must also need to emphasize this subject area. Bangladesh is a multicultural country where more than 27 ethnic minority lives. The research sector can help to understand the current state of police prejudice. Although more studies need to be conducted to shed light on police prejudice, as there is huge leaking of reports documenting these issues in Bangladesh.

This study suggests brief and concrete research must be conducted to get the right solution about the police prejudice issue for seeking of public and police department. Police prejudice is widespread and talked topic in many countries. To reduce that situation, this study prefers some assistance to agencies so they may take responsibility for addressing the important issues of prejudice policing and the perceptions thereof:

Raise awareness of implicit bias among police leaders and officers.

Transform the conversation between police and the community.

In lower-level recruitment, the technique must need to change.

Practical Training and Education.

Minority community outreach.

Policies prohibiting biased policing and monitoring.

Elimination of political influences.

Declaration of Conflicting Interests

The author declared no potential conflicts of interest with concern to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article

Funding

No financial support was received by the authors for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

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AUTHOR AFFILIATION

ANIRA MOHIUDDIN

MS Graduate, Department of Criminology and Police Science, Mawlana Bhashani     Science and Technology      University, Tangail

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